Landmark Decisions of the Supreme Court
Card Set Information
Landmark Decisions of the Supreme Court
Court cases for 10/31/2012
If a law conflicts with the constitution, the court must go with the constitution. Established judicial review - power to declare laws unconstitutional
Marbury v. Madison
Georgia couldn't revoke a land grant after it was sold to 3rd party. Contracts, including sales agreements, protected by constitution
Fletcher v. Peck
Constitution gives both implied and explicit powers to Congress. Implied powers are necessary to carry out express powers. Taxing Bank of US, etc
McCulloch v. Maryland
N. Hampshire couldn't alter a royal charter and make the institution a state college. Charters are contracts, which are protected constitutionally from state interference; Daniel Webster
Dartmouth College v. Maryland
The president exceeded his power by siezing control of the steel mills during Korean War, even to prevent strike
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer
President can't withhold evidence during a criminal trial. The president's executive privilege and privacy isn't unlimited.
United States v. Nixon
No president can be sued for damages caused by any official action while in office. Applies to civil suits, not criminal prosecutions, etc
Fitzgerald v. Nixon
Powers of the federal government superior to states' in all matters of interstate commerce.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Law limiting bakers to a 60-hour week was unconstitutional because it violated "freedom of contract"
Lochner v. New York
The Natl. Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (provided fair-competition business codes) was unconstitutional
Schechter v. United States
Citizens can challenge unfair distribution of state legislative seats before federal court.
Baker v. Carr
U.S. House of Reps. and both houses of state legislatures must follow "one person, one vote" paradigm. Election districts must be approx. equal in population.
Reynolds v. Sims
The government can restrict freedom of speech in cases of "clear and present danger."
Schenck v. United States
Freedom of the press protects obscene materials that met certain standards.
Roth v. United States
A newspaper can't be punished for untrue statements about public officials unless it deliberately printed the falsehood.
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan
The government can't punish a person for advocating ideas.
Brandenburg v. Ohio
Material can be considered obscene if it fulfills certain court-established requirements
Miller v. California
The government can't punish people for burning the U.S. Flag in peaceful protest
Texas v. Johnson
Public schools can't require prayer recitations
Engel v. Vitale
A city or town can include a creche (Nativity scene) in its Christmas display
Lynch v. Donnelly
Military can't try civilians outside military areas if civil courts are available
Ex Parte Milligan
Evidence obtained by illegal means is inadmissable in criminal trials
Mapp v. Ohio
States must provide free counsel to any accused felons if they can't afford a lawyer.
Gideon v. Wainwright
Accused persons must be informed of various constitutional rights before being questioned.
Miranda v. Arizona
States must provide free legal counsel to people accused of misdemeanors that are facing jail if they can't afford a lawyer
Argersinger v. Hamlin
Death penalty (as of 1972) was unconstitutional by 8th and 14tth amendments.
Furman v. Georgia
Death penalty is constitutional when statutes adequetely guide its use.
Gregg v. Georgia
Blacks could not be US citizens and Congress couldn't prohibit slavery in US territories. Overturned by 13th/14th amendments.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
"Separate but equal" public facilities based on race were constitutional. Reversed in 1954.
Plessy v. Fergueson
Government could lawfully remove persons of Japanese ancestry from areas threatened by Japanese attack during WWII
Korematsu v. United States
State or federal courts can't enforce restrictive covenants (agreements to prevent real-estate discrimination)
Shelley v. Kraemer
Separate but equal facilities are unconstitutional, esp. in the public school setting
Brown v. Board (of Education of Topeka)
States can't prohibit woman's right to abortion during first trimester and may do so only in certain circumstances during second trimester. May prohibit abortion if the fetus is viable.
Roe v. Wade
University admissions departments can't use specific quotas to achieve racial balance, but they may give special consideration to minority groups
Regents of Univ. of Calif. v. Bakke
States may outlaw abortions in public hospitals and clinics and prohibit public employees from assisting. May also require tests to determine if fetus is viable.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
States may not forbid laws that are designed to protect homosexuals from discrimination
Romer v. Evans