2) Changes in relative importance of different issues ( from security to economics)
3) The emergence of new actors who augment or replace state actors. (MNC's, NGO's)
Why is a shift in power change unnecessary?
Even in anarchy, many issues affect change.
The progress of exogenous technological developments is ______ the control of actors in the system.
When it comes to radical views on international system structure, what is there an emphasis on?
What is stratification?
The uneven distribution of resources among different groups of states.
What do radicals mean by North vs. South?
The rich vs. the poor
What is this stratification caused by? Why?
Capitalism, which breeds its own instruments of domination.
What is built into the system structure?
Great economic disparities.
What do these cause?
A constraint on all actions and interactions.
What are the implications of stratification? (4 things)
Cripples the international system, empowering the strong and disenfranchising the weak
Creates resentment in the weak
Weak will seek radical change in the domestic and international systems
Disagreement among radicals about how radical change will occur
Why is domestic stability good for the U.S.?
Instability (war) may lead to our involvement and that may interrupt trade.
What is constructivism?
A philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. We each generate our own "rules" and "mental models", which we use to make sense of our experiences.
What, therefore, is learning?
Learning is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.
What is constructivism in the discipline of international relations?
Constructivism is the claim that significant aspects of international relations are historically and socially contingent, rather than inevitable consequences of human nature or other essential characteristics of world politics. A clear critique of realism.
What is human behavior determined by according to constructivists?
It is determined by their identity, which itself is shaped by society's values, history, practices, and institutions.
According to constructivists, all institutions are _______ _______.
What do they reflect?
Shared beliefs about political practice, acceptable social behavior, and values.
True/False: The notion of an anarchic international system is a socially constructed idea. If false, why?
What are the assumptions classical realists hold? (4 things)
The drive for power and will to dominate
State behavior is that of a self-seeking egoist
Human nature as explanatory factor
Power-seeking rooted in biological drives
Who is the leading intellectual authority for classical realists?
Any state that feel it can ____ and ___ will do so.
conquer and dominate
What does Hans Morgenthau's first principle say?
International relationws "...is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature"
What has their roots in human nature?
The laws of politics.
True/False: Human nature is constantly changing. If false, why?
False. Human nature has not changed since the classical philosophies of China, India, and Greece.
As a result of the unchanging tendency of human nature, what else does not change over time and is unaffected by human preference?
What are objective laws drawn from?
What can a theory that reflects these laws differentiate between?
It can differentiate between truth and opinion.
What is truth?
Something that is true, objectively and rationally, supported by evidence, and illuminated by reasoon.
What is opinion?
A subjective judgment, divorced from the facts as they are and informed by prejudice and wishful thinking.
Therefore, is not necessarily a virtue in political theory, nor is ___ ___ a defect.
novelty; old age
What does this mean for any theory that was created hundreds or even thousands of years ago?
That there is no presumption that this theory is outmoded or obsolete.
Dismissing such a theory because of it's old age is to present not a rational argument but a-?
A modernistic prejudice that takes for granted the superiority orf the present over the past.
What does Morgenthau's second Principle do?
It defines interests in terms of power.
As opposed to what?
Economics, ideology, ethics, or religion?
What is the exception for economics?
It is of interest if it brings power.
What are politics characterized by?
The struggle for national power between states.
Because we can assume a definition of interest, what do we not have to concern ourselves with?
Questions of "motives, preferences, and intellectual and moral qualities of successive statesmen."
What does political realism avoid?
Reinterpreting reality to fit policy
What does good foreign policy do?
It minimizes risks and maximizes benefits.
Morgenthau's third principle states that interest defined as power is what?
An objective category which is universally valid but whose meaning can change.
Power is universal, but _____ will change.
The idea of _____ is indeed of the essence of _____ and is unaffected by the circumstances of ____ and ____.
interest; politics; time; place
What does Morgenthau define power as?
" Anything that establishes and maintains the control of time and place."
The _____ of the nation state is changeable over time.
Because the contemporary connection between interest and the nation state is a product of history, what is bound to happen to that connection?
It is bound to disappear in the course of history.
What is Thucydides' statement, born of the experiences of ancient Greece?
" Identity of interests is the surest of bonds whether between states or individuals"
What does Morgenthau's Fourth Principle say that realism assumes?
It says that realism assumes that the universal moral principles do not guide state behavior.
____ behavior and ____ behavior are different.
Why are states not moral agents?
Because their actions will be judged by the criterion of national survival.
Whose survival do individuals have to worry about?
None aside from their own.
What cannot be applied to the actions of the states in the abstract?
Universal moral principles.
Why can universal moral principles not be applied to the actions of the states in the abstract?
Because the circumstances of time and place must be considered.
What must the state place above all other moral goods?
What is the "supreme virtue in politics"?
What is prudence?
"The weighing of the consequences of alternative political actions"
How are actions judged?
By their consequences.
True/False: Both individual and state must judge political action by universal moral principles. If false, why?
Although the individual has a right to sacrifice itself in defense of ____ ____, the state has no right to do so because doing so may get in the way of successful _____ ____, itself inspred by the moral principal of _____ _____.
moral principles; political action; national survival
There can be no _____ ____ without prudence.
How do ethics in the abstract judge actions by?
By its conformity with the moral law.
How do political ethics judge actions?
They judge actions by their political consequences.
What does Morgenthau's fifth principle say about moral principles?
There is no set of moral principles that are universally agreed upon.
True/False: The moral laws that govern the universe do not differ from one nation to the the other. If false, why?
False. They differ.
What does political realism refuse to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with?
With the moral laws that govern the universe.
As it distinguishes between truth and opinion, so it distinguishes between truth and idolatry. There is no universal way to communicate.
What concept saves us from both the moral excess that one knows what is good and evil in the relations among nations and the political folly that God is always on one's side?
The concept of interest defined in terms of power.
How do we do justice to all nations in a dual sense?
By looking at them as political entities pursuing their respective interests defined in terms of power.
What does this dual sense of justice enable us to do?
To judge other nations as we judge our own, and as a result, enables us to pursue policies that respect the interests of other nations, while protecting and promoting those of our own.
What does Morgenthau's sixth principle say about judging realist politics?
It is an autonomous sphere that needs to be analyzed as an entity, without being subordinated to any other sphere of human concern.
For example, in economics there is no _____ or _____. However, these exist in politics.
True/False: There is no difference between political realism and other school of thought. If false, why?
False. The difference is real and profound.
Realism maintains the ______ of the political sphere, and while recognizing that different facts of human nature exist, judges that political man is the appropriate facet for the study of _____.
How does the political realist think when it comes to policy?
"How does this policy affect the power of the nation?"
What is Kenneth Waltz?
When was his book " Theory of International Politics" published?
How does it cure the defects of earlier theories of international politics?
By applying a more scientific approach.
Waltz's objective is to explain why the anarchic internation system tends to ...?
List the three dimensional structures of the international system?
1) Ordering principle of the system
2) The functional differentiation of units
3) The distribution of the capabilities of the units of the international system
The ordering principle of the system is ______, not ______.
Where does anarchy exist in terms of what Waltz terms structure?
On the first dimension.
True/False: Waltz describes power on the state level as being distributed _______, while in the international community it is distributed _______.
From what does Waltz argue the international system emerges from?
From the "co-action of self-regarding units."
What does Waltz assume states seek to ensure?
The real aims of states may be endlessly _____, but in a world without _____, survival is the essential prerequisite.
When it comes to the functional differntiation of units, there is no differentiation of ______ and a specification of their ________.
States have no specific _______.
In this anarchic system, each state is a ______, ______, and formally ______ unit.
separate; autonomous; equal
What did Waltz see a lack of among units in the international system?
A lack of "functional differentiation".
As a result, what did he drop out of his definition of international systems?
Domestic political variables.
What is the differentiation of units rendered unnecessary by?
The condition of anarchy.
How does anarchy render the differentiation of units unnecessary?
"Anarchy entails relations of a coordination among a system's units, and that implies their sameness. This means that they are "autonomous political units" that face similar tasks
While Waltz recognizes the existence of _______ ______, he dismisses their importance.
Why does Waltz dismiss the importance of non-state actors?
States are still the most powerful actors on the world stage due to their influence and the ruls they set; thus, the international system is defined in terms of states.
True/False: When it comes the distribution of capabilities of the units of the international system, states can be differentiated by their functions. If false, why?
False. Although they differ vastly in their capabilities, they cannot be differentiated by their functions.
What do capabilites define?
The relative power of the states.
What do capabilites predict?
Variations in states' balance of power behavior.
International orders vary according to what?
The number of great powers.
Using his theory, what does Waltz find a substantial connection between?
Between the number of great powers and how states in the international community act and re-act.
What can Waltz estimate using this theory?
The probability of war among nations.
What is the main cause of interstate conflict rooted in?
The anarchical nature of the system.
What is the main cause of interstate conflict?
The absence of a central authority that can enforce rules and agreements.
The urge to dominate when given the opportunity is _______.
What is the difference between international and domestic politics?
In domestic politics, citizens do no have to defend themselves, while in international politics, there is no authority to prevent and counter the use of force.
How can security be realized in international politics?
Only through-self help.
Liberals want to create an international system that ____ the domestic system.
How would they accomplish this?
By creating institutions internationally that mimic domestic institutions.
How do classical realists and neorealists differ on power?
Realists view power as an end to itself (goal) while neo-realists view it as a means in competing for security.
According to realists, nations are driven to...?
According to neo-realists, states do not fight because of inner psychological reasons, but because.. (2 things)?
they need to ensure security, and because no systems exist to prevent war.
When does uncertainty increase?
When the number of main actors is higher in the international system.
When does it decrease?
When that number decreases.
What is the implication of this?
An endorsement of biplolarity.
The Neorealist perspective
How does the international system explain international politics?
The international system is the cause; it causes the states to behave the way they do
The existence of a _____ government would cause states to behave differently.
What explains the behavior (or change of behavior) states exhibit?
The structure of relationships explains behavior.
How does the unipolar system explain the war in Iraq from a neorealist perspective?
Intervention was made possible by the U.S. as the only powerful state that could flex its muscles to police the world against states that threaten it.
What is the diffence between the war in Ira and the Cold War?
There is no USSR to check the U.S.
States are constantly looking for opportunities to...?
take advantage of each other
International relations is not a constant state of ____, but a relentless _____ competition.
The system is one of "______ ______".
Waltz: "World politics, although not reliably ______, falls short of _______ chaos.
The Classical Realist Perspective
What do classical realists emphasize?
Human desire for power.
What are states strategies rooted in? (2 things)
In the drive for power and the will to dominate.
The neorealist framework itself depends on the psychological assumption that actors are characteristically highly ________.
Why are actors fearful?
The system is anarchic.
How do actors cope with anarchy?
By joining an alliance.
Morgenthau's view of human nature emphasizes _________.
What opinion do realists and neorealist share on views of the world?
They both view it in very similar, highly pessimistic terms.
What does neo-realism not move beyond?
The human nature arguments of classical realism.
Isn't realism old realism?
This depends on what one thinks old realists were saying.
Traditional realists are _______.
This means that they believe that international outcomes are determined by the decision of _____, the behaving _____.
What is the difference between clasical realism and neorealism?
Old realism is behavioral, while new realism is structural.
Why do neorealists overlook the effects of state's policies and behaviors on international politics? ( 2 things)
States are omitted from structural theory, and neorealism is a theory about international politics, not foreign policy.
According to Waltz, what matters most in International Politics?
What is an example of this?
System's shift from bipolarity (wherein two states check and balance each other) to unipolarity (checks on the behavior of the one great power drop drastically).
When it comes to the importance of nuclear weapons, the dissappearance of one great power left the effect of nuclear weapons intact, but the dissappearance of ______ unleashed the impulses of the remaining great power.
What does superiority foster the desire for?
The desire to use power.
What explains the collapse of the USSR?
The collapse caused not by the triumph of liberal foces operating internationally but by the failure of the ________ system.
The Cold War ended exactly as ______ predicted.
How did they predict it would end?
The Cold War was rooted in the bipolar system, and would end only when that system collapsed.