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Electric circuit
 A closed path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow.

Voltaic cell
A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds seperated by conducting solution.

Battery
A connection of two or more cells.
 Battery symbol:

Electrode
One or two metal terminals in a cell or battery.
~ The breakdown of an electrode is one factor that can limit the life of a cell.

Electrolyte
A solution or paste that conducts charge.
Example: Copper sulphate solution, and Sodium chloride solution.

Dry cell
A cell that contains an electrolyte made of paste.
Common household cells used in torches and remote controls are examples of dry cells.

Wet cell
A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte.
For example, a car battery.

Primary cell
A cell that can only be used once, like a disposable battery.

Secondary cell
A cell that can be recharged.

Fuel cell
A cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that is stored outside the cell.
 ~ Hydrogen fuel cells combine hydrogen that is stored in a tank or cartridge with oxygen from the air.
 ~ Byporducts are heat and water.

Solar cell
A cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy. Multiple soalr cells form a solar panel.

Terminal
A position on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.

Switch
A control device that can complete or break the circuit to which it is connected.

Open circuit
A circuit that contains gaps or break.
Electrons do not flow through any part of the circuit where there is a gap or break, therefore opening a switch, which creats a gap, causes any device that is connected to the switch to stop working.

Electric current
A measure of the number of charged particles that pass by a point in an electric circuit each second.

Coulomb (C)
 The quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25x10^{18 }electrons.

Ampere (A)
The unit of electric current, equivalent to one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using an ammeter.

Electrical resistance
The property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electric enrgy to other forms of energy.

Resistor
A device used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.

Load
A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound, or light.

Potential difference (voltage)
The difference between the electrical potential energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit.

Volt
The unit for potential difference; equivalent to one joule (J) per coulomb (C)

Circuit diagram
A diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in an electric circuit and their connections.
Symbols:
 Diagrams:

Series circuit
A circuit in which there is only one path along which electrons can flow.
The same current flows through all the components, and if one component fails the circuit will not work.

Parallel circuit
A circuit along which there is more than one path along which electrons can flow.
The total current is the sum of the currents through each component. In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the paths is the same.

Ohm’s law
The ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance.

Ohm (Ω)
The unit for resistance, equivalent to one volt per ampere (V/A)
Symbol:

Superconductor
A material through which electric charge can flow with no resistance.

Nonohmic
Not following ohm's law.
For example, a light bulb.

Loads in Series
 Current:
 The current is the same at any point in a series connection.
 I_{T}= I_{1}= I_{2}=I_{3}
 Potential Difference:
 The potential difference across loads ins eries is the sum of the potential difference across all loads.
 V_{T}=_{ }V_{1}+ V_{2}+_{ }V_{3}
 Resistance:
 The resistance of loads connected in series id equal to the sum of the resistances of all the loads.
 R_{T}=_{ }R_{1}+ R_{2}+R_{3 }

Loads in Parallel
 Current:
 Current entering loads connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the current entering all the loads.
 I_{T}= I_{1}+1_{2}+I_{3}_{}
 Potential Difference:
 The potential difference is the same between the terminals of any load in a parallel circuit.
 V_{T}= V_{1}= V_{2 }= V_{3}
 Resistance:
 The resistance of loads that are connected in parallel is less than the resistance of the smallest load.
 R_{T} < R_{1}; R_{T }< R_{2}; R_{T }< R_{3}

