Chapter #11; Glossary Terms

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  1. Electric circuit
    • A closed path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow.
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  2. Voltaic cell
    A source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds seperated by conducting solution.

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  3. Battery
    A connection of two or more cells.

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    • Battery symbol:
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  4. Electrode
    One or two metal terminals in a cell or battery.

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    ~ The breakdown of an electrode is one factor that can limit the life of a cell.
  5. Electrolyte
    A solution or paste that conducts charge.

    Example: Copper sulphate solution, and Sodium chloride solution.
  6. Dry cell
    A cell that contains an electrolyte made of paste.

    Common household cells used in torches and remote controls are examples of dry cells.

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  7. Wet cell
    A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte.

    For example, a car battery.

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  8. Primary cell
    A cell that can only be used once, like a disposable battery. 
  9. Secondary cell
    A cell that can be recharged.
  10. Fuel cell
    A cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that is stored outside the cell.

    • ~ Hydrogen fuel cells combine hydrogen that is stored in a tank or cartridge with oxygen from the air.
    • ~ By-porducts are heat and water.

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  11. Solar cell
    A cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy. Multiple soalr cells form a solar panel. 

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  12. Terminal
    A position on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
  13. Switch
    A control device that can complete or break the circuit to which it is connected.
  14. Open circuit
    A circuit that contains gaps or break.

    Electrons do not flow through any part of the circuit where there is a gap or break, therefore opening a switch, which creats a gap, causes any device that is connected to the switch to stop working.

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  15. Electric current
    A measure of the number of charged particles that pass by a point in an electric circuit each second. 
  16. Coulomb (C)
    • The quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25x1018 electrons.
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  17. Ampere (A)
    The unit of electric current, equivalent to one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using an ammeter. 
  18. Electrical resistance
    The property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electric enrgy to other forms of energy.
  19. Resistor
    A device used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.

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  20. Load
    A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound, or light.

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  21. Potential difference (voltage)
    The difference between the electrical potential energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit.
  22. Volt
    The unit for potential difference; equivalent to one joule (J) per coulomb (C) 

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  23. Circuit diagram
    A diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in an electric circuit and their connections. 

    Symbols: 

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    • Diagrams: 
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  24. Series circuit
    A circuit in which there is only one path along which electrons can flow.


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    The same current flows through all the components, and if one component fails the circuit will not work.
  25. Parallel circuit
    A circuit along which there is more than one path along which electrons can flow.

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    The total current is the sum of the currents through each component. In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the paths is the same.
  26. Ohm’s law
    The ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance. 

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  27. Ohm (Ω)
    The unit for resistance, equivalent to one volt per ampere (V/A)

    Symbol: 

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  28. Superconductor
    A material through which electric charge can flow with no resistance.
  29. Non-ohmic
    Not following ohm's law.

    For example, a light bulb.

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  30. Loads in Series
    • Current: 
    • The current is the same at any point in a series connection.
    • IT= I1= I2=I3

    • Potential Difference:
    • The potential difference across loads ins eries is the sum of the potential difference across all loads.
    • VT= V1+ V2+ V3

    • Resistance: 
    • The resistance of loads connected in series id equal to the sum of the resistances of all the loads. 
    • RT= R1+ R2+R


  31. Loads in Parallel
    • Current: 
    • Current entering loads connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the current entering all the loads. 
    • IT= I1+12+I3

    • Potential Difference:
    • The potential difference is the same between the terminals of any load in a parallel circuit. 
    • VT= V1= V= V3

    • Resistance:
    • The resistance of loads that are connected in parallel is less than the resistance of the smallest load. 
    • RT < R1;  R< R2;  R< R3

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Author:
facea1998
ID:
180826
Filename:
Chapter #11; Glossary Terms
Updated:
2013-01-30 22:59:02
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science
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Chapter 11 Glossary Terms
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