kin 135 test 2

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amandaadair10
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180827
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kin 135 test 2
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2012-10-30 21:50:17
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kin 135 parker AU
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kin 135 2nd test
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  1. essential fat
    fat incorporated in various tissues of the body, critical for normal body functioning
  2. adipose tissue
    tissue in which fat is stored. fat cells
  3. subcutaneous fat
    fat located under the skin
  4. visceral fat
    fat located around major organs; also called intraabdominal fat
  5. percent body fat
    the percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
  6. overweight
    body weight above the recommended range for good health
  7. obesity
    severely overweight, characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat
  8. which fat is more harmful? visceral or subcutaneous?
    visceral
  9. obesity _________ mortality rates and can reduce life expectancy by ___-___ years
    • doubles
    • 10-20
  10. waist measurement of more than ___ inches for men and ___ inches for women is associated with increased risk of disease
    • 40 for men
    • 35 for women
  11. amenorrhea
    absent or infrequent menstruation, sometimes related to low levels of body fat and excessive quantity or intesity of exercise
  12. body mass index
    a measure of body weight correlating highly with more direct measures of body fat, calculated by dividing total body weight (in kilograms) by the square of body height (in meters)
  13. most accurate way to calculate percent body fat; 2nd most accurate way
    • autopsy
    • underwater weighing
  14. skinfold measurement
    used to assess body composition. measure the thickness of skin folds at several different sites on the body
  15. caliper
    what you use to measure skinfolds
  16. bioelectrical impendance analysis
    sends a small electrical current through the body to measure the body's resistance to it. another way to measure percent body fat
  17. waist circumference has been found to be a better indicator of abdominal fat than_________
    waist to hip ratio
  18. 7 steps to developing a personal fitness plan
    • 1. set goals
    • 2. select activities
    • 3. set a target frequency, intensity, and time (FITT) for each activity
    • 4. set up a system of mini-goals and rewards
    • 5. include lifestyle physical activity in your program
    • 6. develop tools for monitoring your progress
    • 7. make a commitment
  19. 5 things to consider when putting together activities for a fitness program
    • fun and interest
    • your current skill and fitness level
    • time and convenience
    • cost
    • special health needs
  20. FITT principle
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Time
    • Duration
  21. FITT principle for cardiorepiratory endurance training
    • Frequency: 3-5 days per week
    • Intensity: 55/65-90% max heart rate
    • Time: 20-60 mins
    • Type: continuous rhythmic activities using large muscle groups
  22. FITT principle for strength training
    • Frequency: 2-3 nonconsecutive days
    • Intensity: sufficient resistance to fatigue muscles
    • Time: 8-12 reps 1 or more sets
    • Type: resistance exercises for all major muscle groups

    **** exercises that use body weight for resistance also build strength and muscle endurance****
  23. to help keep your program on track set up a system of
    goals and rewards
  24. as part of your fitness program plan, specify ways to
    be more active during your daily routine
  25. 8 parts for putting your plan in action
    • 1. start slowly and increase fitness gradually
    • 2. find and exercise buddy
    • 3. ask for support from others
    • 4. vary your activities (cross training)
    • 5. cycle the duration and intensity of your workouts
    • 6. adapt to changing environments and schedules
    • 7. expect fluctuations and lapses
    • 8. choose other healthy lifestyle behaviors
  26. nutrition
    the science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease
  27. essential nutrients
    substances the body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs. these nutrients include proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, minerals, and water
  28. macronutrient
    an essential nutrient required by the body in relatively large amounts
  29. micronutrient
    an essential nutrient required by the body in minute amounts
  30. digestion
    the process of breaking down foods into compounds the gastrointestinal tract can absorb and the body can use
  31. kilocalorie
    a measure of energy content in food; aka calorie
  32. protein
    an essential nutrient that forms important parts of the body's main structures (muscles and bones) as well as blod, enzymes, hormones, and cell membranes; also provides energy
  33. the 6 classes of essential nutrients
    • 1. proteins
    • 2. carbohydrates
    • 3. fats
    • 4. vitamins
    • 5. minerals
    • 6. water
  34. lipids
    fats
  35. triglyceride
    fat with a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains
  36. difference between saturated and unsaturated fat
    • saturated is animal fat
    • unsaturated is plant fat
  37. amino acids
    the building blocks of proteins
  38. legumes
    vegetables such as dried beans and peas that are high in fiber and are also important sources of protein
  39. hydrogenation
    a process that produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans forms of unsaturated fatty acids
  40. trans fatty acid (trans fat)
    a type of unsaturated fat produced during the process of hydrogenation; trans fats have an atypical shape that affects their chemical activity
  41. cholesterol
    a waxy substance found in the blood and cells and needed for synthesis of cell membranes, vitamin D, and hormones
  42. low-density lipoprotein
    blood fat that  transports cholesterol to organs and tissues, excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery walls (bad cholesterol)
  43. High-density lipoprotein
    blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease (good cholesterol)
  44. types of fatty acids
    • saturated: animal fats, butter cheese
    • trans: deep fried foods, stick margarine
    • monounsaturated: plants and nuts

    • Polyunsaturated fats are
    • omega 3 and omega 6: fish oils etc
  45. carbohydrate
    an essential nutrient: sugars, starches, and dietary fiber are all carbs
  46. glucose
    a simple sugar that is the body's basic fuel
  47. glycogen
    a starch st ored in the liver and muscles
  48. whole grain
    the entire edible portion of a grain such as wheat, rice, or oats
  49. glycemic index
    a measure of how a particular food affects blood glucose levels
  50. to reduce sugar, limit
    soft drinks, candy, desserts, and sweetened fruit drinks
  51. dietary fiber
    nondigestible carbs provided by plants. helps you poop
  52. functional fiber
    nondigestible carbs either isolated from natural sources or synthesized, may be added to foods and dietary supplements
  53. total fiber
    the total amount of dietary fiber and function fiber in the diet
  54. soluble (viscous) fiber
    fiber that dissolves in water or is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine
  55. insoluble fiber
    fiber that does not dissolve in water and is not broken down by bacteria in the large intestine
  56. vitamins
    • carbon-containing substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body
    • they are organic
  57. what do vitamins do
    they help unleash the energy stored in carbs, proteins, and fats
  58. antioxidant
    substances that protects the body. binds oxygen, dontates electronsk, repairs damage to molecules
  59. minerals
    inorganic compounds needed in relatively small amounts for the regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions
  60. anemia
    a deficiency in the oxygen-carrying material in the red blood cells
  61. osteoporosis
    bones become brittle and thin and break easily due to insufficient calcium intake
  62. how much water are we composed of?
    what does water do?
    • 50 - 60%
    • helps regulate body temperature, transport substances around the body, lubricates and cushions
  63. are supplements regulated by the FDA
    no. the FDA does not authorize or test dietary supplements or require a demonstration of their safety before they are put on the market
  64. pathogen
    A microrganism that causes disease

    • E. Coli comes from meat
    • Salmonella comes from eggs and poultry
  65. do food additives pose a health hazard?
    no because the levels used are well below any that could produce toxic effects
  66. four basic food safety principles
    • Clean: hands, surfaces, etc
    • Separate: raw, cooked and ready-to-eat foods
    • Cook: foods to safe temperature
    • Chill: refrigerate perishable foods promptly
  67. genetic factors
    influence body size & shape, body fat distribution, & metabolic rate. also effect the ease with which weight is gained as a result of overeats and where extra weight is added
  68. resting metabolic rate
    energy required to maintain vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure, while the body is at rest

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