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The Maasai of East Africa: a Transhumant Pastoral Adaption.
- -Cattle Culture of east africa
- --diet: blood and milk of their cattle; supplemented by grain and fish.
- ---hard to keep up because of the loss of pastures and water has descreased their herd.
- -- important factor= rainfall.
- -Drought Reservce
The Lua:Swidden Cultivators in Tailand
- -live in the mountains of northern tailand: Swidden Cultivation
- -they use the land for a year or 2 and then leave it for about 9.
- -Leave strips of trees along water courses and at the tops of ridge to precent erosion.
- -Also keep pigs, water buffalo, cattle and chickens which may be sold at local markets for cash.
Musha: A peasant village in Egypt
- -Fertile agricultural strip between the riverbanks and the desert.
- -2 year crop roation : summer and winter.
- -farm all kinds of things: milk cheese and butter.
- -sell and eat water buffalo.
- 1980 using machines.
- -hired labor
- -government controlled prices.
A successful Agricultural intervention in Bolivia
- food shortages-increasing among poor peoples the world over,
- expansion of potato cultivation, which could supplement or even replace frains that are most often shipped to poor nations from far away
- Peru-building rural income= Potatoes
- ++Titicana, Tiwanaku= farming.
- adopted european farming methods.
The American Beef Industry
- Beef= symbol and the substance of having made it into the middle class.
- upward mobilitiy.
- After the war- demand for inexpensive beef.
- Largescale meatpacking industry had disasterous environmental impacts.
- The Cost efficiency of assembly line beef processing has high human cost
Anthropologist in the Corporate World
- liveral art
- way of learning, analyzing, and thinking about actions in the world.
- entrepreneurship to social service.
- useful in modern coporate context.
- (1) Culture is the mainstay of anthropology, and anthropologist have better ways of talkinga about it than members of other disciplines.
- (2)boundaries of artificial, so they seek to understand the entire environment of the business and its employees
- (3)mulitlevel analysis that makes sense of ethnographic data,
-analyze their own organizations and do markey research designmed to trailor their prooducts, services, and publicity to the public.
West African Traders in NYC
- Traders trave across the Sahara and into the Sahel and forest regions of West AFrica.
- -specific ethnic groups: Hausa and Dioula.
- Merchants could be assured of finding members of their own group who shared their values and their language.
- Turn a descriptive process into a predictve firl that helps to determine value opportunites.
- promote product sales.
- employeed in consumer research, product design, and marketing.
The connection between wealth and power in the precolonial asante State
- the asante:a Twi-speaking Akan People:tropical forest area.
- labor intensive technology,
- controlled by systematic rationalization and concentration of labor organizaed,overseen and given direction by the state.
- basis of a complex social hierarchy rule by the asantehene, king.
- precolonial asante state lacked the social infrastructure and techonology to command society by coercive force along.
- the only way they made it was the governments regulation of social hierarchy and its success in promoting a core asante calue that wealth and power went hand and hand.
- social class- human labor.
- gold for payments.
- the elephany tail was the "helper" of the stool-weath helps power.
Refugees and Political Asylum
- creation of refugees through the world
- refugees are perople who have been uprooted from their native lands and forced to cross national boundaries into countries or regions that do not necessarily want them or who cannot provide for them.
- the current economic downturn and the increasing ultra-nationalistic rhetoric in many european countries has led to a decline in the willingness of many european countries to accept refugees.
Makes a difference
- American Anthropololigcal association-aimed at educating the public about the reality-the unreality-of race.
- race is a cultue
- no biologoy
- race and racism continue to be embedded in americal culture
- social institutions and everyday life.
Polluted promises:race, health, and the environment
- vulnerability of African Americans to industrial pollution and the ways in which a community response is shaped by racial stratification in both its success and its failures.
What is the relationship between the environment and subsistence(food-getting) pattern of a society
Different physical environments present different problems, opportunites, and limitation to human populations. The subsistence(food-getting) pattern of a society develops in response to seasonal variation in the environment and environmental variation such as drought, flood, or animal diseases. As populations have increased and more complex forms of social and economic organizations have developed, humans have had increasingly intensive impacts on their environments
What are the major subsistence strategies of human population
the five major subsistence patterns of human populations are foraging (fishing, hunting, and gathering) pastoralism, horticulture, agriculture, and industrialism. As a whole, jumankind has moved in the direction of using more complex technology, increasing its numbers, and developing more complex socioculltural systems.
What is Foraging? How has the inuit foraging strategy been affected by global warming?
Foraging is the reliance on food naturally available in environment and acquired through hunting, gathering, and fishing. It was the major food-getting pattern guring almost all of the time humans have been on earth. Although this way of life is ralidly disappearing, foraging is still a useful adjunct to other subsistence strategies for many socieities. With the gradual decrease in Artic Ice, many inuithave had to change the timing and focus of their traditional foraging strategy and seek alternatives ways of getting food.
What are the different kind of pastoralism? How is pastoralism affected by its inclusion in state societies and the global economy?
- rely on herd animals
- nomads-move with herds
- transhumant- permanent villages and part of population move with the herd
- pastoralist cultivate crops or develop trading relations with food cultivators
- state societies- pastoralists are often under pressure to conform to state goals that often aim at moving pastoralist into agriculture.
- global economy provides markets for animal products
What are the major values and strategies in the Maasai trashumant pastoralist society? What are some important challenges to their traditional subsistence strategy?
- The Maasai subsistence strategy hevaily depends on their extensive knowledge of their environment and features the flexible exploitation of multiple ecological niches.
- -in addition to herding cattle, the trade small animals for honey, fish, grains, fruit, and vegetables. The Maasai strategy is challenged as their herding grounds give way to conservation and national parks, an important source of tourist income for Kenya.
What are the major dimensions of horticulture as a subsistence strategy?
Horticulturalists rely on gardens and fields. Horticulture is typically (through not exclusiviely) a tropical forest adaptation and requires the cutting and burning of jungle to clear areas for cultivation. Gardens are used for several years then allowed to lie fallow for long periods to restore fertility.
Describe the subsistence strategy of the Lua' of thailand. how have Lua swidden practices been modified by their contact with other groups?
- the Lua are swidden culticators in the mount region of north thailand. Their major crops are cotton corn.
- rely on their gardens, they also sell products at local markets.
What are the major characteristics of the agricultural subsistence strategy?
- agriculturalists farm on stable fields using using crop rotation and ertilization to maintain land fertilitiy
- irrigation, animal drawn plows, and other technology
- great population densities than all but industrial patterns.
How does Musha, an Egyptian village, illustrate typical peasant economy
they are cultivators who produce mainly for the subsistence of their households and who are part of larger political entities, such as the state.
What is economics and what is economic behavior?
- Economics is the study of the ways in which the choices people make combine to determine how their societies use their scarce resouces to produce and distribute goods and service.
- allocate scarce gods and maximize the benefit
What are productive resources?
- productive resources are the things that members of society need to participate in the economy and access to them is basic to every culture.
- -such resources generaally incluse land, labor, and knowledge.
How does the allocation of productive resources vary as social complexitiy increases?
- social complexity increases, access to productive resources becomes more restricted.
- Foraging society- all access to resources
- Pastoral- ownership of animals is vested in families and kind groups
- Horticulturalists- people control land in which they have invested labor.
How is labor organized in most preindustrial and peasant economies?
- labor must be organized in specific ways to prodce goods.
- in most preindustrial and peasant economies, labor is organized by the housoehold or kind group.
- work that people both perform and receive locates them with respect in their social network, and is often intgral to their identity.
What is the relatioship between population, social complexitiy, and specialization?
- as socieites become more populous and complex,the number of specialized jobs found in them increases. This is particularly true where societies are dependent on grain agriculture or industrialism.
- preindustrial- kin groups may have rights or duties to perform particular specialization.
- wealthy society have extreme high degrees of specialization...created great efficiency buy involves changing notion of identity
What different systems of distribution are described in this chapter?
in all societies there are systems for distributing and consuming goods and services. Every society uses some combination of reciprocity, redistribution, and the market to redistribute goods and services and to rovide patterns and stantdards for consumption.
Reciprocity and describe different types of reciporcity.
Reciprocity is the mutual give and take of goods .
general-at a close social distance give and take without expecting returned
balanced- clear obligations to return goods of nearly equal value to those given.
negative- getting better of the trade.
What is redistribution and in what kind of societies is it commonly found?
goods are collected to a social center from which they are given out to the many group in a new pattern.
common in societies that have bigmen and chiefdoms.
services are bought and sold at a money price determined by markey forces.
occurs without regard to the social position of participants
- embodies energy- took energy to put it in there (cutting down, production, transportation)
- someones energy was involved.
societies had to have energy for the objective to be existing, energy had to be created somewhere.
a bunch of stuff people think
- 670000 calories.
- Must be Full time
- implication>> you dont forage- you dont survive
- primary gatherers.
- gathered by women.
- hunting done by men- small portion of calories.
- leisure society.
Price of foraging
- low population density
- little or no ability to specialize
- lack of material goods
- no generation of storage.
EGALITARIAN SOCIETIES- one in which everyone has equal access to resource
- Gardeners- not alot of social choice.
- not everyone has a garder
- Great place for kings
- 5,411,000 callories.
- alot of human labor, juge leap in energy and effieiceny
- society is more complicated.
- average person was a slave
- while society become more complex, does not mean that its getting any better.
Is industrial arg most efficient?
Way you look at it, humans arent main source so no. machines are not reliable too dependent on so many factors. large scale energy production.
more energy going in
complexitiy coming out
- is the ability to make people do things they would rather not do.
- backed by coercion
the abilitiy to lead by achievement and examply but little.
leadership by authority
hunter project- reversed rep of foragers.
- pattern like gathering
- hunger not a problem
- poisoned arroes.
- everyone has access to everything.
- "i have something you want. i have control over you"
hard to have power over someone.
- no resources you could control everyone has access to it.
- some people can acquire authoirty by being a hunter gather, surreal power(supernatural)
but you cant confirm this into power (acupriilis) headless society. really nothing grabbable (resources)
Balancing population and resources
resource constumer population vs. resource.energy production.
foragers had to control birth rate-slow down resource consumption
- contraception before the 20th century, didnt have a very good one.
- taboos on sex- rules on when you can and cannot have sex (not effective)
- Breast Feeding- 6-7 years.
children under a certain age are killed or allowed to die
kids are let to die existed in over socieity until 100 years ago (kids with illness, birth defects were let go "failure to thrive")
- when you actually do something to kill the child= strangled, exposed,
- twins never survived
- kids with birth defects
- cant give te kids awary
the failure of population control to be fully effective leads to swelling populations and the demand to intensity production techniques.
population increase still lots of baby
- semi tropical
- take lands cut down vegitation.
- (1)release nutrients fertility
- (2)soil fryable
- (3) kill off all the nasty.
- soil compacted.
- begin the whole cycle again
- climate change>>global warming
- traditional sources are changing and moving.
- greatest invnetion.
- LOTS OF WORK
Is swidden destructive?
- swidden horticulture does look nasty sometimes. not destructive.
- perfectly ecologically stable as long as two condiions are met
- (1)enough land for regeneration
- (2)population low enough.
even though gardening is alot of work
it allows you to dettle down, build much more elaborate structures and permanent villages.
with the permanence of habitation (carving, building, jewelry) and a significant increase in avaialable food supply, it makes sense to make things.
with increase in food availablility, large gathering become common.
prestige in gardening-
- tend to have many species. not oats or corn.
- you would have lots of different things
- 50-100 different swidden;gardens.
- religion begins to take on an increasingly important role and the shamans are increasinly likely to be known for their powers to curse as well as cure.
- known beyong their family or privelege
- increasingly common,
- leadership still largely stems from respect and authority
- powerful- comes from possession.
- invite to the people: other people who want prestige enemies and rivalry
If invited to feast
- (1)vow return
- (2)swear loyalty
- (3)attack them
- "states of warefare- extremely common
- Leader-in gardening you need to be able to organize people and lead them.
- @ the end of the day nothing happens, difficult not to have violenve
- Very small societies-adds you going to die in violence very high.
conflict is necesary for population control. conflict avoidable.
warefare doesnt affect 20th century pop. cause who targeted
- (1)doesnt target women and children
- (2)always enough sperm- pragantancy
in order to control population using violence
-aimed at women. girls
societies where status goes to men
- men are over valued
- women are undervalued
- as boys grow up sex.
- there arent enough girls to go around
- makes them drive for more prestige and violence
men vs women
- men fight wars-culturally more highly prized than girls.
- male babes are more welcome.
- female babies are not treated well
- when males reach adolescent-raid other villates.
- created warfare and reinforces the cultural preference for boys
culture- all societies have it, human universal, but not all societies have civilization
characteristics of civilizations
- doesnt have a gov, every culture has politics but not a gov
- enduring social laws
- initiatized religions
- permanent cities
- economic system
- access to very large amounts of food
- alot of people
massive control of land rather than gardening-small land.
people really rearranging land for human consumption(restructure_
What kinds of foods.
- cause you can grow alot of it=productive
- potatoe found in the andes
- Quality^ and labor.
- not very easy to grow
- enormous am. of labor
- nutriction value( eh)
how does civilians get started?
- no definite answer
- seize control of resources
- people feel compiled tos tay in area
- ower comes control of resources
- dominated by issues of power
- social satisfaction
- social classes
3 social levels
- Rulers- wealth consumes
- Bureaucrats-office holders
- Masses- wealth being created by.
How do you move wealth from the bottom to the top
- taxiation-armies raid another society
- ownership of land- rent
- protection rachet.
writing comes into play. who owns what records!
What becomes of money from taxiation
- goes to support other people to live in fancy(jewelyry, palace) cool shit
- Goes to civilization- if rich buting jewelry someone has to make that-pays masses.
- anything made, adds overwhelming that it was made by civilization.
- has to do with people who have one job to make that one thing that for years focused only on whatever.
civilization was based on
most people in civilized societies were
serfs or salves
- ranked group you are ranked into(BORN INTO)
- indogienous-marry someone of the same caste
- ascribed- cannot change written into you
- "essense- used in the same sense as essential oitl. the vital bit, the heart and sould.fundamental
- identiy is changable
- achieved status
- is the only thing that follows you.
- measure of how much to follow your dharama
specific rules. individual has to follow
next life, based on kharma and dharma
Notions that races hang together
- is face
- classifying people and how to act with those people.
system of caste
- marraige between interracial-1960's
- just ike indian caste system
- race is a system of essence.
- we understand ourselves as a class societies
- mobilitiy between classes possible -achievements
- what class you end up in best predictable is class you started with- not aractivity true in US (economically)
- going up more likely than going down(mobility)
we dont create middle class society until
- post WW2
- rise in poverty 2008
Inequality (justifying) functionalist
- reasonable, we believe in it
- idea of success
- because we hope that your success will benefit all of us
- motivated by $
- good things=creates risk takers most capable people 10 positions do most good.
- unitary idea.
in order to be drown to inequality, everyone has to have equal shot to be drawn has to be true
- unitary proposal
- its good gause some deserve it-field has to be equal=chances odds.
motivating power(inequality declines @ the margin)
- the value of a dollar depends on a person
- if you get paid a million $, you wont be motivated by 50,000
- more you have= less $ motives you, less you have=more motives by $
are useful jobs highly reards>
- mis representation of capitalism
- capital system- income
- how much you can get out of them- ex.) football player.
- how hard are you to replace.
Inequality can be justified problems with that
practical knownledge of economics
- every culture has family(hard to define)
- support, values, knowledge(long list)
- uniquely family?provided only by family?
- can also get this from other places.
- 1950 "leave it to beaver"
- problem- common in societies, a monatary arrangement
- americans- 3 generations
- domestic service
- adoption= orphan trains (1920)
- how much notion of who children are in relation with family and how it has changed
one man and numeros wives
problem: not enough women to go around. shortage:men die
women marry young and men marry late.
one woman and several men
Too much energy
the norms governing production distribution, and consumption of goods and service within a society.
land toolds knowledge and storage
small ownership change, access to these resources.
a mutual give and take among people of equal status.
- goods and services value forces of supply and damend
- because based on assumptioon that we only take what we need and we are greedy
- work for wages privately owned.
- investory for profit
ability to make people do things they dont want to do
- make people do things they dont want to do
- because of honor or status.
small group, blood marraige live together, not associated with land or territory
- descended from same sancestors
- no social ranking
- respect for elder
- social ranking
- power and authority
centralized form of govt