A&P Test 2

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malpal84
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180920
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A&P Test 2
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2012-10-31 01:52:45
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A&P Test 2
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  1. Skin, it makes up 16% of body weight
    Integument System
  2. One of the major componenets of integument system, skin
    Cutaneous Membrane
  3. Loose connective tissue, below dermis, location of hypodermic injections
    Subcutaneous Layer
  4. Protects underlying tissue and organs; excretes salts, water and organic wastes; maintains body temp
    Functions of Skin
  5. Has many germinative (stem) cells or basal cells
    Attached to basal lamina by hemidesmosomes
    Forms strong band between epidermis and dermis
    Has epidermal ridges and dermal papillae
    Has merkel cells and melanocytes
    Stratum Germinativum
  6. Produced by division of stratum germinousum
    8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes
    Cell shrunk until cytoskeletons stick out (spiny)
    Continue to divide, increasing epithelium thickness
    Contain langerhans cells (active in immune response)
    Stratum Spinosum
  7. Stops dividing and starts producing
    Has keratin and keratohyalin
    Cells: Produce protein fibers
    dehydrate and die
    create tightly interlocked layer of keratin surrounded by keratohyalin
    Stratum Granulosum
  8. Only found in thick skin
    Covers stratum granulosum
    Cells: flat; dense; filled w/ keratin
    Stratum Lucidum
  9. Exposed surface of skin
    15-30 layers of keratinized cells
    water resistant
    shed and replaced every 2 weeks
    Stratum Corneum
  10. bodys most abundant epitheilal cell
    Keratinocytes
  11. formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled w/ keratin
    occurs on all exposed skin except eyes
    Keratinization
  12. insensible- interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through stratum corneum
    sensible- water excreted by sweat glands
    Perspiration
  13. from immersion in hypertonic solution
    Dehydration
  14. bluish skin- caused by reduction in blood flow or oxygenation
    Cyanosis
  15. build up of bile produced by liver
    Jaundice
  16. pituitary gland, skin darkening
    Addison's Disease
  17. loss of melanocytes, loss of color
    Vitiligo
  18. protects skin from sun damage skin color depends on melanin production, not number of melanocytes
    Melanocytes
  19. causes DNA mutations and burns which lead to cancer and skin wrinkles
    UV Radiation
  20. epidermal cells produce cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) in presence of UV radiaiton liver & kidneys convert vitamin D into calcitriol to aid absorption of calcium & phosphorus
    Vitamin D
  21. Between epidermis & subcutaneous layer
    anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles & sweat glands)
    Dermis
  22. in the dermis
    consists of dense irregular connective tissue
    contains large blood vessels, lymph vessels & nerve fibers
    contains connective tissue proper
    Reticular Layer
  23. in the dermis
    consist of dense irregular connective tissue
    contains large blood vessels, lymph vessels & nerve fibers
    contains connective tissue properties
    Papillary Layer
  24. collagen & elastic fibers in dermis
    establish important patterns
    parallel cut remains shut, heals well
    cut across (right angle) pulls open & scars
    Lines of Cleavage
  25. cutaneous plexus
    network of arteries along reticular layer
    papillary plexus- capillary network
    from small arteries in papillary layer
    Arteries in Dermal Circulation
  26. venous plexus- capillary return deep into the papillary plexus
    contusion- damage to blood vessels resulting in "black & blue" bruising
    Veins in Dermal Circulation
  27. lies below integument
    stabilizes skin & allows seperate movement
    made of elastic areolar & adipose tissue
    connected to reticular layer of integument by connective tissue fibers
    Hypodermis
  28. capillary malformation
    -angel's kiss
    -stork bite
    -infantile hemangioma
    -capillary inalformation
    Hemangiomas
  29. nevus
    Moles
  30. deposits of subcutaneous fat
    have distribution pattern determined by horomones
    are reduced by cosmitic liposuction
    Adipose Tissue
  31. exocrine glands- sebaceous glands (oil glands)
    simple branched alveolar glands: associated w/ hair follicles
    sebaceous follicles: discharged directly onto skins surface
    holocrine glands
    Exocrine Glands
  32. everywhere except palms, soles of feet, lips and portions of external genitalia
    Location of Hair
  33. hair root: lower part of hair attached to integument
    hair shaft: upper part of hair not attached to integument
    arrector pili: -involuntary smooth muscle
    -causes hairs to stand up
    -produces "goose bumps"
    sebaceous glands: -lubricate hair
    -control bacteria
    Structures of Hair
  34. begins deep in dermis
    hair papilla contains capillaries & nerves
    hair bulb produces hair matrix
    Hair Growth
  35. layer of dividing base cells
    produce hair structures
    push hair up and out of skin
    Hair Matrix
  36. Lanugo- fetal hair follicles
    Vellus Hairs- soft, fine; cover body surface
    Terminal Hairs- heavy pigmented; head & eyebrows & genitalia area
    Hair Types
  37. nail root- deep epidermal fold near the bone
    nail body- visable portion of the nail covers nail bed
    lunula- pale crescent at the base of the nail
    Nail Structures
  38. damage due to heat, electricity, radiation or chemicals
    catastrophic loss of body fluids
    -dehydration & electrolyte imbalance
    rule of nine
    Burns
  39. 1st degree- epidermis is damaged
    2nd degree- epi and upper dermis is damaged
    3rd degree- entire thickness of skin is damaged
    Classification of Burns
  40. fluid filled cavity encircled by muscle fibers; soft-bodied invertebrates
    Hydrostatic
  41. body encased in hard shell chitin most be shed for growth
    limits body size as exoskeleton has to grow increasingly thicker and heavier
    Exoskeleton
  42. rigid internal skeleton of bone
    Endoskeleton
  43. 1. support
    2. storage of minerals (calcium)
    3. storage of lipids (yellow marrow)
    4. blood cell production (red marrow)
    5. protection (ribs, skull)
    6. Leverage (force of motion)
    Functions of Skeleton System
  44. long & thin; found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers and toes
    Long Bones
  45. thin w/ parallelsurfaces; are found in skull, sternum, ribs and scapula
    Flat Bones
  46. small, irregular bones; found between the flat bones of the skull
    Sutural Bones
  47. have complex shapes
    ex. spinal vertebrae & pelvic bones
    Irregular Bones
  48. small & thick
    ex. ankle & wrist bones
    Short Bones
  49. small & flat
    ex. joints of knees, hands & feet
    Sesamoid Bones
  50. depressions or groves along bone surface
    -projections where tendons & ligaments attach at a articulation w/ other bones
    -tunnels where blood & nerves enter bone
    Bone Markings
  51. -mature bonecells that maintain the bone matrix
    -live in lacunae
    -between layers of matrix
    -connect by cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi in lamellae
    -do NOT divide
    2 functions: -maintain protein & mineral content of matrix
    -helps repair damaged bone
    Osteocytes (Bone Cell)
  52. -immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (osteogenesis)
    osteoid- matrix produced by osteoblasts, but not yet calcified to form bone
    osteoblasts- surrounded by bone becomes osteocytes
    Osteoblasts
  53. -secrete acids & protein digesting enzymes
    -giant, multinucleate cells
    -dissolve bone matrix & release stored minerals (osteolysis)
    -derived from stem cells thatproduce macrophages
    Osteoclasts
  54. -mesenchymal cells that divide to produce osteoblasts
    -located in inner, cellular lyaer of periosteum (endosteum)
    -assist in fracture repair
    Osteoprogenitor Cells
  55. osteon is teh basic unit of mature compact bone
    -osteocytes are arraanged in concentric lamellae
    -around a central canal containing blood vessels
    Compact Bone
  56. basic unit of mature compact bone
    Osteon
  57. perforating canal- perpendicular to the central canal
    -carry blood vessels into bone & marrow
    Canals
  58. circumferential lamelle- wrapped around the long bone
    -binds osteons together
    Lamelle
  59. covers all bones except parts enclosed in joint capsules
    -made up of an outer, fibrous layer & inner, cellular layer
    Periosteum
  60. 1. isolate bone from surrounding tissues
    2. provide a route for circulatory & nervous supply
    3. participate in bone growth & repair
    Functions of Periosteum
  61. -an imcomplete cellular layer
    -lines marrow cavity
    -covers trabeculae of spongy bone
    -lines central canal
    -contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells & osteoclasts
    -active in bone growth & repair
    Endosteum
  62. -does not have osteons
    -matrix forms an open network of trabeculae
    -trabeculae have no blood vessels
    -in some bones, spongy bone holds yellow marrow
    Spongy Bone
  63. 1. mesenchymal cells aggregate differentiate into soteoblasts, begin ossification at ossification center, develop spicules
    2. blood vessels grow into the area to supply the osteoblasts & spicules connect trapping blood vessels inside bone
    3. spongy bone develops & remodeled into osteons of compact bone
    Intramembraneous
  64. -ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilage (most bone)
    -long bones
    1. chondrocytes in the center of hyaline cartilage
    2. blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage & cell in the perichondrium change to osteoblasts
    3. blood vessels enter the cartilage bringing fibroblasts that become osteoblasts & spongy bones develops @ primary ossification center
    4. remodeling creates a marrow cavity
    5. capillaries & osteoblasts enter the epiphyses creating secondary ossification centers
    6. epiphyses fill w/ spongy bone:
    -cartilage w/ in joint cavity is articulation  cartilage
    -cartilage at metaphysis is epiphyseal cartilage
    Endochondral
  65. when long bones stop growing after puberty epiphyseal cartilage disappears & visible on x-rays
    Epiphyseal Line
  66. -single pair of large blood vessels
    -enter diaphysis through nutrient foramen
    -femur has more than one pair
    Nutrient Artery & Vein
  67. -supply the epiphyseal cartilage
    -where bone growth occurs
    Metaphyseal Vessels
  68. -blood to superficial osteons
    -secondary ossification centers
    Periosteal Vessels Provide:
  69. recycles & renews bone matrix
    *involves osteocytes, osteoblasts & osteoclasts
    Remodeling
  70. dietary source of calcium & phosphate salts:
    -plus small amts of magnesium, fluoride, ion & manganse
    Minerals
  71. Vitamin C: required for collagen synthesis & stimulates differentiation
    Vitamin A: stimulates osteoblast activity
    Vitamin K&B12: help synthesize bone proteins
    Vitamins
  72. -made in kidneys & helps absorb calcium & phosphorus from digestive tract
    -synthesis required vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
    -growth hormone & throxine stimulate osteoblasts
    -calcitonin & parathyroid hormone regulate calcium & phosphate levels
    Calcitrol
  73. produced by parathyroid glands in the neck
    increases calcium ion levels by:
    -stimulating osteoclasts
    -increasing intestinal absroption of calcium
    -decrease calcium excretion at kidneys
    PTH (Parathyroid Hormone)
  74. secreted by C cells (parafollicular cells) in thyroid
    decreases calcium ion levels by:
    -inhibiting osteoclast activity
    -increasing calcium excretion at kidneys
    Calcitonin
  75. contacts w/ other bones
    Articulations
  76. areas of muscle & ligament attachment
    Marks
  77. openings for nerves & blood vessels
    Foraminae
  78. longitudinal axis
    supports & protects organs in body cavities
    attaches to muscles of:
    -head, neck & trunk
    -respiration
    -appendicular skeleton
    Axial Skeleton
  79. protects:
    -brain
    -entrances to respiratory system
    -entrance to digestive system
    -has 22 bones
      -8 cranial bones
    Skull
  80. encloses cranial cavity
    which contains the brain
    -and its fluids, blood vessels, nerves & membranes
    Cranial Bones
  81. superficial facial bones for muscle attachment:
    -maxillary, lacrimal, nasal, zygomatic, mandible
    deep facial bones seperate oral & nasal cavity from nasal septum:
    -palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, vomer
    Facial Bones
  82. seperates occipital from parietal ones
    Lambdoid Suture
  83. attaches frontal one to parietal bones
    Coronal Suture
  84. between parietal bones, lambdoid suture to coronal suture
    Sagittal Suture
  85. form boundaries between temporal & panetal bones
    Squamous Suture

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