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who was the first person to make an attempt at classifying humans?
what taxoniomic classification was this?
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
- -asian (dark)
- -red (americas)
who was Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)
what were the 5 categories?
what else did he argue?
German anatomist who classified human into 5 races based on craniometrics
- 1. mongolian
- 2. american
- 3. caucasian
- 4. malayan
argues physcial characteristics associated with character and intellignce
In later life how to blumenback change his mind
realised there was significant diversity within individual races
racial hierarchies based on concept of biological ________
what does this infer?
what did this lead to
association of physical characteristics with behavioural attributes (e.g.interlligence, morality, ability, character traits)
Biological determinism led to eugenics - a philosopy or race improvement through forced sterilisation of undesirable groups and increased reprooduction of others
what did racial examination entail in nazi germany
what defines a sub-human
- body measurement
- assesment of character, ability
- pyschological qualities
only a rough copy of a human being, with humna like facial traits but nonetheless morally and mentally lower than any other animal
Models for human variation (3)
- Typological -people divided into geographical groups based on regular occurence of selected traits - non mixing must occur for this model to work. False assumption that people can be unambiguously assigned to a "race" based on selected traits
- --> based on ethnocentric views of ourselves and others
- looks for breeding population first and then seeks out anatomical and physiological traits that may be specific to them. --> undermines the sense that people mate outside a single race group
based on fact that genetically inherited traits change gradually in frequency from one geographic area to another (blood type, height)
takes into consideration that groups living near each other likey to share genertically inherited traits
human variation - result of ______ to ______ conditions
Adaptations to environmental conditions
Adaptation to sunlight
Skin color influenced by _____ produced in epidermis by _____. But populations differ in amount and size of melanin____
influenced by melanin, produced in epidermis by melanocytes. but populations differ in amount and size of melanin granules.
____ absorbs UV ____ providing protection against damaging effects such as genetic mutations causing ___ ____.
Dark skin also prevents UV _____ of _____(_ vitamin only obtained through diet)
melanin, radiaiton, skin cancer,
Dark skin also prevents UV degradation of FOLATE (B vitamin only obtained through diet
what does folate prevent
during what time of development does this happen
UV radiation depletes ___ levels in ___ skinned individuals so ____ skin people adaptive in high UV environements
Neural tube defects - spina bifida
UV depletes folate levels in light skinned individuals so dark skinned people adaptive in high UV environments
Vitamin D produced in ______ through interaction of ______ + _______ compound in skin cells
Vitamin D can be partically obtained from diet but ____ exposure key
deficiency in vitamin D can lead to______
Vitamin D produced in skin through interaction of UV radiation and cholesterol like compound in the skin
Vitamin D can be partially obtain from diet but sunlight exposure is key
Deficiency in vitamin D can lead to rickets
researchers have moved away from examining ______ traits to looking at ________traits to examine human variation
forus on ______/____ traits that involve multiple genees and showing gradations
Researches ahve moved away from examining phenotypic traits to looking at genotypic traits to examine human variation
Focus on polymorphic/polygenic traits that involve multiple genes and showing gradations
Melanin ___absorption of _____ needed for _______ synthesis
thus in areas where sunlight is limited ____ skin is a disadvantage
Leanin blocks absorption of UV radiation needed for vitamin D synthesis
thus in areas where sunlight is limited dark skin is a disadvantage
what are the 4 camps regarding race?
- 1. race as a natural category
- 2. race not to be the most precise way to describe human variation, but accurate enough for applied work
- 3. race not valid biological category, but constraints put on forensic anthropologists such that necessary to put up with faulty paradigm (race as a necessary evil)
- 4. non - existence and non-utility of race
In 1996 american asssociation of physical anthropologists declared position statement on biological aspects of race
What did they declare?
biological differences between human beings due to genes, natural and social environments
--> degree to which environment or heredity affects any particular trait varies greatly.
Humanity cannot be classified into ___ geographic categories with ____ boundaries
no _____ representatives
Humanity cannot be classified into discrete categories with absolute boundaries
no typical representatives
3 main ancestral groups?
- ASIAN, BLACK, WHITE
- mongoloid, negroid, caucasoid