Ancestry pt I

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Ancestry pt I
2012-10-31 21:03:15
Ancestry pt

Ancestry pt I
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  1. who was the first person to make an attempt at classifying humans?

    what taxoniomic classification was this?
    Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)

    Homo Sapiens
  2. Albescencs
    • -whites
    • -black 
    • -asian (dark)
    • -red (americas)
  3. who was Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)

    what were the 5 categories?

    what else did he argue?
    German anatomist who classified human into 5 races based on craniometrics

    • 1. mongolian
    • 2. american
    • 3. caucasian
    • 4. malayan
    • 5.negroid

    argues physcial characteristics associated with character and intellignce
  4. In later life how to blumenback change his mind
    realised there was significant diversity within individual races
  5. racial hierarchies based on concept of biological ________

    what does this infer?

    what did this lead to

    association of physical characteristics with behavioural attributes (e.g.interlligence, morality, ability, character traits)

    Biological determinism led to eugenics - a philosopy or race improvement through forced sterilisation of undesirable groups and increased reprooduction of others
  6. what did racial examination entail in nazi germany

    what defines a sub-human
    • body measurement
    • assesment of character, ability
    • pyschological qualities

    only a rough copy of a human being, with humna like facial traits but nonetheless morally and mentally lower than any other animal
  7. Models for human variation (3)
    • Typological -people divided into geographical groups based on regular occurence of selected traits - non mixing must occur for this model to work. False assumption that people can be unambiguously assigned to a "race" based on selected traits
    • --> based on ethnocentric views of ourselves and others
    • populational 
    • looks for breeding population first and then seeks out anatomical and physiological traits that may be specific to them. --> undermines the sense that people mate outside a single race group
    • clinal

    based on fact that genetically inherited traits change gradually in frequency from one geographic area to another (blood type, height)

    takes into consideration that groups living near each other likey to share genertically inherited traits
  8. human variation - result of ______ to ______ conditions
    Adaptations to environmental conditions
  9. Adaptation to sunlight

    Skin color influenced by _____ produced in epidermis by _____. But populations differ in amount and size of melanin____
    influenced by melanin, produced in epidermis by melanocytes. but populations differ in amount and size of melanin granules.
  10. ____ absorbs UV ____ providing protection against damaging effects such as genetic mutations causing ___ ____.

    Dark skin also prevents UV _____ of _____(_ vitamin only obtained through diet)
    melanin, radiaiton, skin cancer,

    Dark skin also prevents UV degradation of FOLATE (B vitamin only obtained through diet
  11. what does folate prevent

    during what time of development does this happen

    UV radiation depletes ___ levels in ___ skinned individuals so ____ skin people adaptive in high UV environements
    Neural tube defects - spina bifida

    UV depletes folate levels in light skinned individuals so dark skinned people adaptive in high UV environments
  12. Vitamin D produced in ______ through interaction of ______ + _______ compound in skin cells

    Vitamin D can be partically obtained from diet but ____ exposure key

    deficiency in vitamin D can lead to______
    Vitamin D produced in skin through interaction of UV radiation and cholesterol like compound in the skin

    Vitamin D can be partially obtain from diet but sunlight exposure is key

    Deficiency in vitamin D can lead to rickets
  13. researchers have moved away from examining ______ traits to looking at ________traits to examine human variation

    forus on ______/____ traits that involve multiple genees and showing gradations
    Researches ahve moved away from examining phenotypic traits to looking at genotypic traits to examine human variation

    Focus on polymorphic/polygenic traits that involve multiple genes and showing gradations
  14. Melanin ___absorption of _____ needed for _______ synthesis

    thus in areas where sunlight is limited ____ skin is a disadvantage
    Leanin blocks absorption of UV radiation needed for vitamin D synthesis

    thus in areas where sunlight is limited dark skin is a disadvantage
  15. what are the 4 camps regarding race?
    • 1. race as a natural category
    • 2. race not to be the most precise way to describe human variation, but accurate enough for applied work
    • 3. race not valid biological category, but constraints put on forensic anthropologists such that necessary to put up with faulty paradigm (race as a necessary evil)
    • 4. non - existence and non-utility of race
  16. In 1996  american asssociation of physical anthropologists  declared position statement on biological aspects of race 

    What did they declare?
    biological differences between human beings due to genes, natural and social environments

    --> degree to which environment or heredity affects any particular trait varies greatly.
  17. Humanity cannot be classified into ___ geographic categories with ____ boundaries

    no _____ representatives
    Humanity cannot be classified into discrete categories with absolute boundaries

    no typical representatives
  18. 3 main ancestral groups?
    • ASIAN,      BLACK,   WHITE
    • mongoloid,   negroid,     caucasoid