Chemistry Exam 4

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Chemistry Exam 4
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2012-10-31 16:52:16
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Chemistry Exam 4
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  1. Aqueous solution
    A solution in which water is the solvent.
  2. Colloid
    a substance which is not crystalline in its anhydrous form
  3. Colloidal solution
    a "solution-like" system

    a mixture of insoluble particles and a solvent in whic the particles cannot be seen by the unaided eye
  4. What are the examples of colloidal solutions?
    • gelatin
    • blood plasma
    • lanolin
  5. the particles of solute in this type of solution are capable of passing through filters but NOT through membranes?
    Colloidal solution
  6. Concentrated solution
    that solution which is holding a relatively large amount of solute
  7. Dilute solution
    that solution which is holding relatively small amount of solute
  8. Saturated solution
    a solution containing all of the solute the solvent is able to hold at a certain temperature and pressure
  9. Supersaturated solution
    a solution containing more solute than it could hold under ordinary circumstances
  10. Unsaturated solution
    a solution containing less of the solute than can be held in solution by the solvent under ordinary circumstances
  11. Diffusion
    the movement of a solute or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
  12. Homogenous
    uniform concentration
  13. Crenation
    when a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution and shrinks
  14. Plasmolysis
    movement of solvent out of a cell to a solution of greater concretration causing it to shrink
  15. Plasmoptysis
    movement of solvent into the cell to a solution of greater concentration causing it to swell and burst
  16. Hemolysis
    when a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution and swells and bursts
  17. Hypertonic solution
    the solution having a greater concentration of disolved solute than the solution to which it is being compared
  18. Dialysis
    the seperation of crystalloidal and colloidal solutes in a complex solution by passing the solution through a semipermeable membrane
  19. Humectants used in embalming solutions are considered what type of solution?
    a colloidal
  20. Hypotonic solution
    the solution having a lesser concentration of dissolved solut than the solution to which it is being compared
  21. Osmosis(2)
    the selective flow of a diffusable component through a semipermeable membrane  (must have)

    the passage of a solvent from an area of lesser concentration (of solute) to one of greater concentration (of solute) when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane
  22. Isotonic solution
    when two solutions on either side of a membrane are of equal concentrations
  23. the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the temperature of the solution
    the warmer the solution, the faster the solute will disperse

    the cooler the solution, the slower the solute will disperse
  24. the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the concentration of the solution
    the more solute there is, the faster it will disperse
  25. the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the agitation of the solution
    the more the solution is moved, the faster the solute will disperse
  26. the rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to the size of the molecules of either the solvent or solute
    the larger the molecules, the slower they will move and disperse
  27. How are solutions measured qualitatively?
    the comparison of the "relative" amount of solute present in a volume of solvent rather than precise amounts
  28. Solubility(2)
    the measure of how well two substances mix

    the amount of solute needed to produce a saturated solution in a given amount of solvent
  29. Ratio
    a comparison between the number of parts of the solute and the total number of parts in the solutions (solute plus solvent)
  30. Percentage
    the number of grams of solute in one hundred mililiters of solution
  31. Index
    the number of grams formaldehyde in one hundred militers of solution
  32. True solution
    a homogenous molecular mixture of two or more substances able to pass through a semipermeable membrane

    it is assumed that it will pass through a filter also
  33. Crystalloidal solution
    a true solution
  34. Crystalloid
    a substance that is crystalline in its anhydrous (dry) solid form and is capable of passing through both filters and membranes when it is soluble solute in a solution
  35. Tincture
    a solution in which an alcohol is the solvent
  36. Suspension
    a mixture of insoluble particles and a solvent in which the particles can be seen by the unaided eye

    the particles of solute in a suspension will not pass through filters of membranes
  37. Emulsion
    a mixture of two insoluble liquids with one dispersed throughout the other in small droplets
  38. Electrolytic solution
    a solution contains solutes capable of conducting electricity
  39. What are the examples of electrolytic solutions?
    those that ionize in water

    inorganic acids, bases, salts
  40. Non-electrolytic solution
     a solution containing solutes that are incapable of conducting electricity
  41. What are the examples of non-electrolytic solutions?
    organic carbohydrates, lipids, and alcohols
  42. Mixture
    a combination of two or more substances not chemically united and not in definite proportion by mass

    any combination of solids, liquids, or gases
  43. Solution
    a homogenous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent)
  44. Can you distinguish between the solvent and the solute in a true solution?
    NO
  45. Solute(2)
    the component of a solution that is dissolved

    it is present in the lesser amount by weight
  46. Solvent(2)
    the component of a solution that is capable of dissolving the other component

    it is present in the greater amount by weight
  47. Solvation
    the process of dissolving the solute in the solvent to make a solution
  48. What are the examples of crystalloidal solutions?
    • suger water
    • salt water
    • arterial fluids
  49. What must usually be altered to create a saturated solution?
    usually the temperature and/or the pressure that are altered to accomodate such a solution
  50. How are arterial fluids designed to be as compared to tissue fluids?
    arterial fluids are disgned to be hypotonic to tissue fluids and cells so that the arterial fluid will be allowed to enter into the cells
  51. How are solutions measured quantitatively?
    by precise amounts
  52. What happens to normal tissue cells when placed in a hypertonic solution?
    plasmolysis
  53. What happens to normal tissue cells when placed in a hypotonic solution?
    plasmoptysis
  54. What happens to red blood cells when placed in a hypertonic solution?
    crenation
  55. What happens to red blood cells when placed in a hypotonic solution?
    hemolysis
  56. Which component of a solution is present in the greater amount by weight?
    solvent
  57. Which component of a solution is present in the lesser amount by weight?
    solute
  58. the particles of solute in this type of solution will not pass through filters or membranes
    suspension
  59. the particles of solute in this type of solution will pass through both filters and membranes
    true solution

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