IBHS LAB 5

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lintyone
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180975
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IBHS LAB 5
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2012-11-02 01:28:14
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IBHS medterms: Ch6 p133-146
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  1. Functions of musculoskeletal system
    • protection
    • support
    • mvmt for body
  2. hemat/o
    blood
  3. -poiesis
    production
  4. muscul/o
    muscle
  5. function of bones
    • formation of blood cells
    • storage of fat in bone marrow
    • storage & relase of minerals (Ca)
  6. musculoskeletal
    pertaining to muscles and skeleton
  7. orth/o
    straight
  8. ped/o
    child
  9. -ic
    pertaining to
  10. orthopedics
    branch involving prevention & correction of deformities or dx of musculoskel sys (esp bones, muscles, joints, ligaments & tendons)
  11. orthopedist
    • originally aligned children's bones
    • today: specializes in disorders of bones & associated structures
  12. -ar
    pertaining to
  13. articul/o
    joint
  14. what does cartilage cover?
    ends of opposing bones
  15. function of fat pads & bursa at the knee?
    provide protective cushions, muscles make it possible to bend knees.
  16. adult human skeleton consists of ____ # bones
    206
  17. -al
    pertaining to
  18. anter/o
    anterior, twd the front
  19. carp/o
    carpus (wrist bones)
  20. meta-
    change or next in a series
  21. tars/o
    tarsus (ankle bones)
  22. vertebr/o
    vertebra
  23. major division of the skeleton
    (forms vertical axis of body)
    skull, spinal column, breastbone, ribs
  24. bones of vertical axis of body
    • clavicle, cranium, costa, scapula, sternum, spine 
    • vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx)
  25. bones of pelvis
    ilium, ischium, pubis
  26. bones of upper extremities
    humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
  27. bones of lower extremities
    femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, calcaneus, metatarsals, phalanges
  28. clavicul/o
    • clavicle
    • collarbone
  29. crani/o
    • cranium
    • skull
  30. cost/o
    • costa
    • rib
  31. scapul/o
    • scapula
    • shoulder blade
  32. stern/o
    • sternum
    • breastbone
  33. rachi/o, spin/o
    • spine
    • backbone
  34. spondyl/o, vertebr/o
    • vertebrae
    • spinal bones
  35. cervic/o
    • cervical vertebrae
    • spinal bones
  36. thorac/o
    • thoracic vertebrae
    • spinal bones
  37. lumb/o
    • lumbar vertebrae
    • spinal bones
  38. sacr/o
    • sacrum (sacral vertebrae)
    • spinal bones
  39. coccyg/o
    • coccyx (coccygeal vertebrae)
    • tailbone (fused coccygeal bones)
    • spinal bones
  40. humer/o
    • humerus
    • upper arm bone
  41. radi/o
    • radius
    • bones of forearm
  42. uln/o
    • ulna
    • bones of forearm
  43. carp/o
    • carpals
    • wrist bones
  44. metacarp/o
    • metacarpals
    • bones of hand
  45. phalang/o
    • phalanges
    • bones of fingers
  46. pelv/i
    pelvis
  47. ili/o
    • ilium
    • pelvic bones
  48. ischi/o
    • ischium
    • pelvic bones
  49. pub/o
    • pubis
    • pelvic bones
  50. femor/o
    • femur
    • thigh bone
  51. patell/o
    • patella
    • kneecap
  52. fibul/o
    • fibula
    • bones of lower leg
  53. tibi/o
    • tibia
    • bones of lower leg
  54. tars/o
    • tarsals
    • ankle bones
  55. calcane/o
    • calcaneus
    • heel bone
  56. metatars/o
    • metatarsals
    • bones of feet
  57. phalang/o
    • phalanges
    • bones of toes
  58. cranium
    • refers to skull
    • encloses & protects brain
    • skull: cranial & facial bones
  59. vertebral/spinal column attachd at base o skull
    encloses SC, supports head, serves as place of attachment for ribs & muscles of back
  60. rachiodynia & rachialgia
    painful spine
  61. spondylitis
    inflammatino of a vertebra
  62. intervertebral
    • between 2 adjoining vertebrae
    • cushions of cartilage btwn adjoining vertebrae (intervertebral disks)
    • layers absorb shock
  63. cranial bones (6)
    frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid
  64. facial bones (2)
    maxilla, mandible
  65. vertebral column = __ vertebrae
    • 33
    • SC part of CNS
    • cylindrical structure located in spinal canal, extending from lower part of brain to upper part of lumbar region
  66. spinal fluid
    • aka CSF
    • clear, colorless liquid
    • circulates throughout brain & SC
  67. cervical vertebrae
    C1-C7
  68. thoracic vertebrae
    • T1-T12
    • part of posterior wall of thoracic cavity
  69. lumbar vertebrae
    • lower back
    • L1-L5
  70. thoracolumbar region
    inferior thoracic vertebrae & superior lumbar vertebrae
  71. sacrum
    5 sacral vertebrae fused into 1 (adults)
  72. coccyx
    • tailbone; fusion of vertebrae
    • located @ base of spinal column
    • represents 4 fused coccygeal bones
  73. ribs
    • 12 pairs
    • 1-7 = true ribs
    • 8-12 = false ribs (dont attach to sternum)
  74. intercostal
    • btwn ribs
    • intercostal mus lie btwn ribs & draw adj ribs togeher to increase vol of chest when breathing
  75. subcostal
    below/under ribs
  76. sternocostal
    sternum & ribs
  77. vertebrocostal
    rib & vertebra
  78. -oid
    resembling
  79. ribs
    • 12 on each side of chest
    • 1-12
    • 1-7 join directly w/sternum by cartilage
    • 8-12 do not directly join w/sternum
    • 11-12= floating ribs
  80. costovertebral
    pertaining to rib & vertebra
  81. thorax
    • upper part of trunk/cage of bone & cartilage containing organs of respiration & circulation & covering part of abdominal organs
    • formed by sternum & costal cartilages; thoracic vertebrae & dorsal parts of ribs
  82. sternal
    pertaining to breastbone
  83. substernal
    location or position below sternum
  84. sternoclavicular
    pertains to clavicle & sternum
  85. sternal puncture
    made w/needle to get sample of bone marrow
  86. clavicle
    attach to sternum & R/L scapula
  87. clavicular
    pertains to clavicle
  88. scapular
    • refers to scapula
    • upper arm bones attach to scapulae
  89. -graph
    instrument for recording
  90. radi/o
    radiant energy
  91. male pelvis
    • bones larger & heavier
    • pelvic outlet = heart shaped
  92. female pelvis
    • pelvic outlet larger & more oval
    • size & shape varies
    • important in childbirth
    • L5 + sacrum joined by pubic symphysis
  93. pelvis
    • lower vertebrae
    • basin-like structure formed by sacrum, coccyx & pelvic girdle (pelvic bones)
  94. hip bone
    • 2 help form pelvis
    • consists of 3 separate bones
    • - ilium, ischium, pubis
    • fuse by adulthood --> hip bone
  95. iliac
    ilium
  96. ishial
    ischium
  97. carpectomy
    excision of one or more bones of wrist
  98. carpal tunnel syndrome
    • sx from pressure on median nerve in carpal tunnel of wrist
    • pain, burning, tingling in fingers/hand
  99. phalanges
    • 2 in thumb
    • 3 in other four fingers
    • phalangitis = inflam of bones of fingers/toes
  100. dist/o
    far/distant from origin or point of attachment
  101. inter
    btwn
  102. proxim/o
    nearer the origin or point of attachment
  103. carpal bones
    8
  104. palm
    5 metacarpal bones
  105. phalanges: phalanx
    • metacarpophalangeal joint
    • proximal phalanx
    • middle phalanx
    • distal phalanx
  106. lower extremity bones
    • hip bone
    • femur
    • patella
    • tibia & fibula
    • tarsals
    • calcaneus
    • metatarsals
    • phalanges
  107. lower extremity
    bones of thight, leg, foot & kneecap
  108. lower leg bones (2)
    • tibia (larger)
    • fibula
  109. foot bones
    • ankle
    • instep
    • five toes
  110. ankle bones
    • 7
    • calcaneus (heel bone) is longest
  111. instep bones
    5 metatarsals
  112. osteoid
    resembling bone

    bone contains living cells & richly supplied w/BV & nerves
  113. calcification
    • process: organic tissue becomes hardened by deposits of calcium
    • abnormal in soft tissue
  114. decalcification
    loss of calcium from bone or teeth
  115. osteomalacia
    decalcification w/out replacement of lost calcium
  116. bone marrow
    soft organic material in central cavity of bone
  117. myelitis
    inflamm of SC or bone marrow
  118. myelofibrosis
    replacement of bone marrow by fibrious tissue
  119. osteomyelitis
    inflamm of bone, often involving bone marrow
  120. myeloensephalitis
    inflam of brain & SC
  121. ankyl/o
    stiff
  122. arthr/o
    articulation, joint
  123. -asthenia
    weakness
  124. burs/o
    bursa
  125. calc/i
    calcium
  126. cellul/o
    little cell or compartment
  127. chondr/o
    cartilage
  128. de-
    down, from, or reversing
  129. meta-
    change or next in series
  130. -sarcoma
    malignant tumor of CT
  131. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon
  132. cartilage
    • type of dense CT
    • elastic but strong
    • withstands pressure/tension
    • forms major part of embryonic skel; replaced by bone as matures
    • located in ext ear, nasal septum, windpip, btwn vertebrae, cover bone surfaces where meet
  133. chondral
    pertaining to cartilage
  134. synovial fluid
    lubes joints
  135. articulation
    place of union btwn 2 or more bones
  136. synovial joints
    • joints with cavities btwn articulating bones
    • freely movable
    • contains synovial fluid
    • ex. elbow, knee, ankle, shoulder, hip joints
  137. bursae
    • sacs of fluid in areas of friction (esp joints)
    • helps decrease friction/shock absorption
  138. four common types of joint motion 
    • extension
    • flexion
    • rotation
    • circumduction
  139. extension
    straightens limb
  140. flexion
    bends limb
  141. rotation
    mvmt of bone around its own axis
  142. circumduction
    circular mvmt of a limb at the far end
  143. ligaments
    • strong bands of fibrous CT; connects bones/cartilage
    • support & strengthen joints
  144. muscle composed of?
    cells or fibers that contract & allow mvmt of organ/part of body
  145. 3 main types of muscle tissue
    • cardiac (heart)
    • smooth (visceral or involuntary) in internal organs
    • skeletal (voluntary control)
  146. fascia
    fibrous membrane covers, supports, & separates muscles
  147. tendons
    • bands of strong fibrous tissue 
    • attach muscles to bones

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