SOC 379M Sociology Theory

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180976
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SOC 379M Sociology Theory
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2012-10-31 15:21:19
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Sociological Theory Sociology
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Sociological Theory Exam #2 Study Guide
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  1. Principles of Sociological Method
    • 1. All preconceptions must be eradicated.
    • 2. The subject matter for sociological research must be social facts directly observed.
    • 3. Social facts must be viewed as a product of group experiences and not individual actions.
    • 4. The cause of any given social fact must be sought
    • in its preceding social facts.
  2. Social Facts - According to Durkheim
    those facts that are part of the collective consciousness
  3. Mechanical Solidarity
    • Tied together because have one common center i.e. an army, they have division of labor but the whole collective sticks together, they have an allegiance to one common cause or idea.
    • Earlier, simpler societies in which there is little division of labor & everyone's life experiences are similar.  
    • Very homogeneous society
  4. Organic Solidarity
    • Characteristic of modern societies with a high division of labor;  Individuals feel moral obligation to others who are not like themselves, based on a sense of reciprocity, interdependence, and respect for the unique contributions of diverse individuals. In such societies, the collective conscience becomes less dominant, allowing for the development of a multitude of individual expressions of belief and ethical sentiments. 
    • We work as an organism. Each part has its own function but they work together to make the whole work. Ex: A body, the heart has its own function, the lungs, they work together to make the bodywork.
  5. Traditional Societies: 
    Morphology
    • 1.    Low division of labor 
    • 2.    Systemic Simplicity: Spheres of life integrated into single whole
  6. Traditional Societies:
    Normative Structure
    • 1.    Punishment is Public 
    • 2.    Private in terms of process of justice
    • 3.    Sanctions were repressive
  7. Modern Societies:
    Morphology
    • 1.  High division of labor; as people become more specialized in their job, they become more dependents on other people’s tasks
    • 2.  Systemic Complexity: Spheres of life are very separate. You have judges, businesspersons, artists who don’t listen to each other
  8. Modern Societies:
    Normative Structure
    • 1.    Private Punishments 
    • 2.    Public in terms of process of justice, you have court hearings, which people can see. 
    • 3.    Sanctions are repressive and restitute.
  9. Collective Effervescence
    • Perceived energy formed from a gathering of people.
    • Those who are engaged in collective rituals are engaged in an emotional state, which re-activates the collective consciousness
  10. Sanctions - According to Durkheim
  11. Sanctions - According to Durkheim
    Repressive Sanctions
  12. Sanctions - According to Durkheim
    Restitutive Sanctions

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