Biology

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Anonymous
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181055
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Biology
Updated:
2012-10-31 23:38:02
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Biology
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plasma membrane
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  1. 1.    What are the 4 components that make up the plasma membrane?
    • 1. phospholipds
    • 2. cholesterol
    • 3. proteins
    • 4. glycocalyx
  2. Describe the structure of a phospholipid.
    two layers of phospholipids: the fatty acid chains point towards each other
  3. 1.    Differentiate between an integral protein and a peripheral protein.
    Integral proteins are bound to the hydrophobic layer and peripheral proteins aren't.
  4. Know the functions of the proteins associated with the plasma membrane.
    • structural support
    • recognition
    • communication
    • transporting proteins
  5. What’s the glycocalyx? What is its function?
    Carbohydrate chains are attached to membrane proteins or to phospholipid molecules. It's function is to serve as a binding site for other molecules.
  6. Describe the function of cholesterol molecules in the plasma membrane.
    Keeps some small molecules from enetering. Helps maintain the membrane's fluidity.
  7. Explain what the fluid mosaic model states.
    this molle comptualization views the membrane as a fliud phospholuipid bilayer that has within it a mosaic of stationary and mobile proteins
  8. Differentiate between passive transport and active transport
    passive transportation doesn't require energy to move substances across the cell membrane but active transport does.
  9. Describe the process of diffusion. Use the term concentration gradient in your description.
    mvement of molecvules or ions form a region of higher concentration to lower concentration. concentration gradient-a difference between solute concentrations.
  10. How does facilitated diffusion differfrom simple diffusion?
    facilitated diffusion is diffusion through cell membrane that utilizes a transport protein. simple diffusion is diffusion through cell membrane w/o a special protein.
  11.  What do we mean by semipermeable membrane?
    water and lipids can move across but larger substances that carry -/+ cannot.
  12. Explainhow osmosis works.
    the net mnovement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration.
  13.  What will happen to a cell if it is placed in:
    a.    A hypertonic solution? Why?
    b.    A hypotonic solution? Why?
    c.    An isotonic solution? Why?
    • the cell water moves out
    • water moves in
    • water is balanced
  14. What factors influence whether or not a molecule can diffuse across the plasma membrane?
    the size and sign of the moleecule
  15. 1.    Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.
    endocytosis moving large substances INTO cell. Exocytosis moving large substance OUT of cell
  16. 1.    How does pinocytosis differ from phagocytosis?
    pinocytosis pinching off a vesicle to capture material
  17. Explainhow ion pumps create an electrochemical gradient and why thisis necessary
    • one side of the plasma membrane is more -/+ than the other.
    • 3 Na+ ions are pumped out of cell
    • 2 K+ ions are pumped into cell
  18. 1.    What are the three parts of the cell theory?
    • cells are beasic units of structure and function for ALL living things
    • All living things are composed of one or more cells
    • Cells come from pre-existing cells
  19. 1.    Compare and contrast a prokaryotic cell to a eukaryotic cell.
    • eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and a membrane bound organlelles.
    • they both have kingdoms and are unicellular
  20. 1.    List the 5 principal components of a eukaryotic cell.
    • nulcues
    • organelles
    • cytosol- jellylike fliud inside of cell
    • cytoskeleton
    • plasma membrane
  21. a.    Nucleus
    • houses our DNA
    • the site of DNA replication and transcription
  22. Nucleous
    where RNA is produced
  23. Ribosome
    the site of protein synthesis (translation) in the cell
  24. cytoskeleton
    • cell structure
    • cell movement
    • transport of materials within the cell
  25. Golgi complex
    processes and distributes proteins that come to it for RER
  26. lysosome
    uses enzymes to digest worn-out organelles or foreign materials that enter a cell (animal cells)
  27. mitochondria
    the powerhouse of the cell- where ATP is produced (cell fuel)
  28. rough endoplasmis reticulum
    • processes the proteins for export from the cell
    • folding polypeptide
  29. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • detoxifies harmful substances
    • ex. detoxifies alcohol
  30. central vacule
    • stores nutrients
    • stores H+ ions to allow plant cell to maintain
    • stores waste products only they can be degraded
    • stores waste which allows a plant cell to maintain a healthy internal pressure
  31. chloroplasts
    the site of photosynthesis in plant and algae cells
  32. cell walls
    • provide structural strength rigidty
    • protection
  33. 1.    The cytoskeleton is made up of three different types of filaments. Name the three types and describe their function(s).
    • micrpfilaments-allows changes in cell shape
    • intermediate filaments-help cell to maintain its shape; stabilizes the position of the nucleus to there organelles
    • micrtubles
    • -determining the shape of cell
    • -movement of vesicles
    • -form the underlying structures needed for cililia and flagella which aid in cell mobility
  34. 1.    Differentiate between cilia and flagella.
    • cilia- hairlike extensions that propel a cell or sweep material around the cell
    • flagella- a tail like extension that function in cell movement
  35. 1.    What’s the difference between plasmodesmataand gap junctions?
    • plasmodesmata-tiny permanent channels in plant cell walls that link plamt cells topgether
    • gap junctions- integral plasma membrane proteins tha line  up and form temporary channels for small molecular ions to pass through
  36. Describethe path that a protein takes through the cell starting with DNA
    • DNA
    • mRNA
    • Ribosome
    • Rough ER
    • Golgi complex
    • Transport vesicle
  37. 1.    What’s the difference between a polypeptide chain and a protein?
    • protein- ploymers made of amino acids
    • polypeptide chains- bond that link amino acids

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