biology: working as a biologist

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  1. Plant cell
  2. Animal cell
  3. Magnification equations
    • mag= size of diagram
    •           -------------------
    •           real size

    • mag= size of image
    •           -----------------
    •           size of object

    mag= eye piece X objective
  4. Electron microscopes
    • - Scanning: 3D image
    • - Transmisson: internail detail
    • (SEM + TEM)

    - When magnification increases the field of view goes down.
  5. Optical microscopes
    • - Compund: two seperate lens stystems, one for each eye. Shows small body in 3D (e.g. ant)
    • - Compound: two or more seperate lenses. Shows interal structure of cells.
  6. Surface area to volume ratio
    SA:V - number of units of surface area. E.g. as the organism gets bigger the ratio or surface area to volume gets smaller.
  7. Exchange of materials across membranes
    • Osmosis: movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration.
    • E.G. cell membrane will allow water but not salt.

    Diffusion: molecules of solute spread from areas of low concentration in the solvent.

    • Solvent: substance that dissolves the solute into it.
    • Solute: substance that is dissolved into the solvent.
    • E.G. water (solvent) will have salt dissolve into it (solute).

    Hypotonic: less solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, which causes the water to be sucked in that direction. E.G. the cell will gain water and grow larger.

    Hypertonic: more solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, which causes the water to be sucked in that direction. E.G. the cell will shrink and may die.

Card Set Information

Author:
Madeline
ID:
181060
Filename:
biology: working as a biologist
Updated:
2012-11-01 04:11:43
Tags:
biology
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