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primary amenorrhea in a female with fully developed 2nd sexual characteristics
anatomical defect in genital tract: imperforated hymen or Mullerian duct abnormalities
epithelium of vagina
- stratified squamous, non-keratinized
- contains glycogen
epithelium of uterus
- simple pseudostratified columnar
- (fallopian tube = simple columnar)
maternal and fetal complications with rubella
- mom: polyarthralgia, polyathritis
- fetus: cataracts, deafness, PDA
how should a physician break difficult news to a patient?
- give them a moment of silence to process the news
- then, explain what the news means and their options
most common cause of irregular periods 5 years after menarche and 10 years before menopause
absent ovulation (cycles can be short or long)
to be statistically significant, what should the RR NOT be?
- (RR > 1 indicates exposure is associatd with increased disease occurence)
- CI should not cross the value of 1 either
Non-disjunction in down syndrome occurs in what meiosis stage
maternal meiosis I
what prevents lactation during pregnancy, despite having high prolactin levels
estrogen (from pituitary and placenta) and progesterone (from placenta) during third trimester
lab values in Kleinfelter's (47XXY)
- increased FSH and LH, and estradiol
- decreased testosterone
where in the ovarian follicle are androgens made?
- theca interna cells
- under LH control
- produce androgens from cholesterol
- progesterone is also made from cholesterol
- (theca externa = connective tissue support structure)
where in the ovarian follicle is estradiol made?
FSH stimulates granulosa cells to convert androgens to estradiol
which vitamin is given at birth to prevent hemorrhagic dz of the newborn (not seen in breastmilk)
- vitamin K
- (vitamin D is also not in breastmilk - adequate sun exposure needed)
epithelial cells of the fallopian tube
- ciliated cells = transports embryo/egg
- peg cells = secretes nutrients
Retrospective, case-control studies are at an increased likelihood of what type of bias?
- Recall bias
- (patients who suffered an adverse event are more likely to recall risk factors than those who didn't)