Nutrition Test 7

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Nutrition Test 7
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2010-05-06 14:42:08
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Holmes Nutrition OCCC test
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Chapters 13 & 14
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  1. Healthful Body Weight
    • n A
    • healthful weight

    • q Is
    • appropriate for your age and physical development

    • q Is
    • maintained without constant dieting

    • q Is
    • based on family history of body shape and weight

    • q Promotes
    • good eating habits and allows for regular physical activity

    • q Is
    • acceptable to you
  2. Vocabulary:
    • n Underweight:
    • having too little body fat to maintain health (BMI <18.5)

    • n Overweight:
    • having a moderate amount of excess body fat (BMI >24.9 & <29.9)

    • n Obese: having an excess of body fat that adversely
    • affects health (BMI >30-39.9)

    • n Morbid
    • obesity: body weight exceeding 100% of normal, creating a very high risk
    • for serious health consequences (BMI>40)
  3. Evaluating Body Weight: BMI
    • n Body
    • Mass Index

    • q Expresses
    • the ratio of a person’s weight to the square of their height

    • q
    • BMI = weight (kg) / height (m)2

    • q BMI
    • = [weight (lbs) / height (inches)2] X 703

    • q BMI
    • values below 18.5 or above 30 have increased health risks

    • q Crude
    • measure to determine healthy wt. & health risks
  4. Evaluating Body Weight

    BMI Limitations
    • n Body
    • composition

    • q Measure
    • of body fat (amt of fat or adipose tissue) and lean body mass ( amt of fat free
    • tissue, or bone, muscle & internal organs)

    • q Can
    • be measured by

    • § Underwater
    • weighing

    • § Skinfold
    • measurements

    • § Bioelectric
    • impedance analysis

    • § Dual-Energy
    • X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

    • § Bod
    • Pod™
  5. Evaluating Body Weight: Fat Distribution
    • n Fat
    • distribution pattern

    • q Apple-shaped
    • fat patterning – upper body

    • § Increased
    • risk for chronic diseases

    • § Men
    • tend to store fat in their abdominal region

    • q Pear-shaped
    • fat patterning – lower body

    • § No
    • significant increased risk for chronic diseases

    • § Women
    • tend to store fat in their lower body
  6. Evaluating Body Weight: FD Continued
    • n Fat
    • distribution pattern:

    • q Abdominal
    • fat increases chronic disease risk

    • q Waist-to-hip
    • ratio

    • § Men’s
    • waist-to-hip ratio is higher than 0.90

    • § Women’s
    • is higher than 0.80

    • q Waist
    • circumference

    • § Men
    • above 40 in. (or 102 cm.)

    • § Woman
    • above 35 in. (or 88 cm.)
  7. Evaluating Body Weight: Summary

    Energy Balance
    • n Energy
    • balance

    • q Occurs
    • when energy intake = energy expenditure

    • q Intake
    • > expenditure = wt. gain (xs of ~3,500 kcals = 1 lb gain.

    • q Energy
    • intake is kcal from food

    • q Energy
    • expenditure is energy expended at rest and during physical activity. 24 hour
    • TEE:

    • n Basal
    • metabolic rate (BMR)

    • n Thermic
    • effect of food (TEF)

    • n Energy
    • cost of physical activity
  8. Energy Expenditure: BMR
    • n Basal
    • Metabolic Rate (BMR)

    • q Energy
    • expended to maintain basal, or resting, functions of the body

    • q The
    • highest proportion of total energy expenditure

    • q BMR
    • increases with more lean body mass, during stress, and periods of growth

    • q BMR
    • decreases with age and during energy restriction
  9. Energy Expenditure: BMR

    Energy
    Expenditure: TEF & Physical Activity
    • n Thermic
    • Effect of Food (TEF)

    • q Energy
    • expended to process food

    • q About
    • 5-10% of the energy content of a meal if mixed diet



    • n Energy
    • cost of physical activity

    • q About
    • 20-35% of someone’s total energy output each day. Dependent upon: muscles used,
    • body size, intensity & duration of activity, & genetic differences
  10. Estimating Kilocalorie Needs
    • n Calculate
    • your BMR

    • q Men
    • = weight (kg) x 1.0 x 24 hours

    • q Women
    • = weight (kg) x 0.9 x 24 hours



    • n Add
    • the energy required to maintain your activity level to your BMR
  11. Factors Affecting Body Wt: Genetics
    • n About
    • 25% of one’s body fat is accounted for by genetic influences

    • n Different
    • ideas have been suggested to explain the impact of genetics on body fat

    • q Thrifty
    • Gene Theory – proposes a gene causes people to be energetically thrifty; expend
    • less energy thus wt gain

    • q Set-point
    • Theory – proposes person’s wt stays within a small range (set point); body
    • compensates for changes in energy balance & keeps a person’s wt at set
    • point
  12. Factors Affecting Body Wt: Childhood
    • n Environmental
    • factors in childhood can influence

    • q Food
    • choices

    • q Activity
    • levels

    • q Later
    • adult behaviors



    • n Childhood
    • overweight increases the risk of heart disease and premature death as an adult
  13. Factors affecting Body Wt: Physiological
    • n Hunger
    • vs. appetite

    • n Proteins
    • affect the regulation of appetite and storage of body fat

    • q Leptin
    • acts to reduce food intake

    • q Ghrelin
    • stimulates appetite

    • q Peptide
    • YY (PYY) decreases appetite

    • q Uncoupling
    • proteins in brown adipose tissue increase energy expenditure
  14. Factors affecting body wt: Physiological
    n Increase satiety (or decrease food intake)

    q Hormones – serotonin, cholecystokinin (CCK)

    q Increase in blood glucose levels after meal

    q Stomach expansion

    q Nutrient absorption from the small intestine

    n Decrease satiety (or increase food intake)

    q Hormones - beta-endorphins

    q Neuropeptide Y

    q Decreased blood glucose levels
  15. Psychological & Social Factors
    • n Social
    • factors influencing our diet include:

    • q Family
    • or cultural traditions

    • q Holidays
    • and celebrations

    • q Easy
    • access to high-fat foods

    • q Less
    • physically active lifestyles

    • q Societal
    • expectations of the “perfect” body
  16. Achieve & Maintain Healthful Weight
    • n Healthful
    • weight change requires

    • q Gradual
    • change in energy intake

    • q Regular
    • and appropriate physical exercise

    • q Application
    • of behavior modification techniques
  17. Achieve & Maintain Healthful Weight
    • n Safe
    • and effective weight loss

    • q Follow
    • recommended serving sizes

    • q Reduce
    • high-fat and high-energy food intake

    • q Regular
    • physical exercise: increase energy expenditure and BMR
  18. Achieve & Maintain Healthful Weight
    • n Weight
    • loss medications and herbal supplements:

    • q May
    • have dangerous side effects

    • q Many
    • have been removed from market

    • q Should
    • only be used if a person has

    • n A
    • BMI of 30 kg / m2

    • n A
    • BMI of 27 kg / m2 and other health risk factors
  19. Achieve & Maintain Healthful Weight
    (Underweight)
    n Underweight: BMI below 18.5

    ↑ risk of infections & illness

    • n Effective
    • weight gain:

    • q Eat
    • 500 to 1,000 extra kcal/day

    • q Eat
    • frequently throughout the day

    • q Maintain
    • a balanced diet

    • q limit
    • fat intake: 15-30% of total energy intake

    • q Avoid
    • tobacco (depress appetite and increase BMR)

    • q Exercise
    • regularly with resistance training
  20. Disorders Related to Energy Intake
    • n
    • Overweight

    • q BMI
    • between 25 and 29.9 kg / m2

    • q Health
    • risks: high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep disorders

    • q Many
    • overweight people will become obese

    • q Recommend
    • healthful eating and regular physical activity to prevent additional weight
    • gain, achieve a healthful weight, support long-term health
  21. Disorders Related to Energy Intake
    • n
    • Obesity and morbid obesity

    • q Obesity:
    • BMI from 30 to 39.9 kg / m2

    • q Morbid
    • obesity: exceeds 100% normal weight

    • q 5
    • of the 9 leading causes of death in the US are associated with obesity

    • q Multifactorial
    • disease: many causes of obesity
  22. Obesity
    Disorders Related to Energy Intake

    • n
    • Overweight and obesity – epidemic in US
    • linked to many chronic diseases:

    q Hypertension

    • q Dyslipidemia
    • - elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and decreased
    • HDL cholesterol

    • q Type
    • 2 diabetes

    • q Heart
    • disease and stroke

    • q
    • Gallbladder disease
  23. Disorders Related to Energy Intake
    • n
    • Overweight and
    • Obesity – epidemic in US linked to
    • many chronic diseases:

    q Osteoarthritis

    q Sleep apnea

    • q Certain cancers: colon, breast, endometrial, and
    • gallbladder

    • q Gestational diabetes, premature fetal deaths, neural
    • tube defects, and complications during labor and delivery

    • q
    • Depression
  24. Disorders Related to Energy Intake
    • n Treatments
    • for obesity may include

    • q Low-calorie
    • diet and regular exercise

    • q Prescription
    • medications

    q Surgery

    • § Vertical
    • banded gastroplasty

    • § Gastric
    • bypass

    • § Gastric
    • banding
  25. Physical Activity vs. Fitness
    n Physical activity: any muscle movement that increases energy expenditure



    • n Leisure time
    • physical activity: any activity unrelated to a person’s occupation

    • q Recreational –
    • hiking, walking, biking

    q Competitive sports

    • q Exercise –
    • purposeful, planned, structured physical activity
  26. Physical Activity vs. Fitness
    • n Physical fitness: state of being from the interaction
    • between nutrition and physical activity



    n Physical fitness includes

    q Cardiorespiratory fitness

    q Musculoskeletal fitness

    q Flexibility

    q Body composition
  27. Benefits of Physical Activity
    • n Regular
    • physical activity:

    • q Reduces
    • the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure

    • q Reduces
    • the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes

    • q Reduces
    • the risk for osteoporosis

    • q May
    • reduce the risk of colon cancer

    • q Improves
    • sleep patterns and immune function

    • q Reduce
    • anxiety and mental stress
  28. Benefits of Physical Activity
    • n Despite
    • the clear benefits of regular physical activity,

    • q more
    • than half of all US
    • adults do not do sufficient physical activity

    • q 16%
    • of US adults admit to doing no leisure time physical activity at all

    • q less
    • than 30% of high school students participate in daily physical education
  29. Sound Fitness Program
    • n A
    • sound physical fitness program

    • q Meets
    • your personal goals

    • q Is
    • fun

    • q Includes
    • variety and consistency

    • q Appropriately
    • overloads the body

    • q Includes
    • a warm-up and cool-down period
  30. Sound Fitness Program
    • n A
    • sound physical fitness program meets your personal goals



    • n An
    • individual’s fitness program will be different if they are

    • q Training
    • for athletic competition

    • q Working
    • toward cardiorespiratory fitness

    Trying to maintain overall health
  31. Sound Fitness Program
    • n A
    • sound physical fitness program is fun



    • n An
    • individual’s fitness program should focus on what they enjoy.

    • q Outdoor
    • activities

    • q Social
    • recreation
  32. Sound Fitness Program
    • n A sound physical fitness program includes variety and
    • consistency



    • n A variety of activities helps to maintain interest and
    • increase enjoyment



    • n The Physical Activity Pyramid highlights the
    • variety of activities that constitute a fitness program
  33. Sound Fitness Program
    • n A sound physical fitness program appropriately
    • overloads the body



    • n Hypertrophy:
    • gain in muscle strength and size from repeated work that overloads the muscle

    n Overload principle: additional physical demands on the body to improve fitness

    q Excess exertion is NOT recommended

    • q FIT principle
    • determines appropriate overload
  34. Sound Fitness Program
    • n The
    • FIT Principle

    • q Frequency
    • – the frequency of physical activity varies with fitness goals

    • q Intensity
    • – determining proper intensity may be based on maximal heart rate or Borg Scale
    • of Perceived Exertion

    • q Time
    • of activity – total activity time is an accumulation of activities or
    • completed all at once
  35. Sound Fitness Program
    • n A
    • sound physical fitness program includes a warm-up and a cool-down period

    • q Includes
    • stretching and calisthenics

    • q Warm-up
    • increases blood flow and body temperature, and prepares a person
    • psychologically for the activity

    • q Cool-down
    • helps to prevent injuries and may reduce muscle soreness
  36. Fuel for Physical Activity
    • n Adenosine
    • triphosphate (ATP) – the energy carrying molecule in the body



    • n ATP
    • must be generated continuously since muscles store only enough ATP for 1–3
    • seconds of activity

    Fuel for Physical Activity

    • n After
    • depleting ATP stores, muscles turn to other sources:

    • q Creatine
    • phosphate (CR) stores some energy that can be used to make ATP

    • q Creatine
    • phosphate stores enough energy for 3 to 15 seconds of maximal physical effort
  37. Fuel for Physical Activity
    • n After
    • creatine phosphate, glucose is the next source of energy for ATP
    • production

    • n
    • Glucose provides ATP through glycolysis

    • n
    • The most common source of glucose during
    • exercise: muscle glycogen and blood glucose

    • n Glycogen
    • stores are limited
  38. Fuel for Physical Activity
    • n
    • Primary end product of glycolysis is pyruvate

    • n With
    • limited oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid, by-product of
    • intense activity

    • n Excess
    • lactic acid goes back to the liver to be converted back into glucose
  39. Fuel for Physical Activity

    Fuel for Physical Activity
    • n Glucose
    • metabolism

    • q Anaerobic
    • breakdown of glucose yields 2 ATP molecules

    • q Aerobic
    • breakdown of glucose yields 36 – 38 molecules of ATP
  40. Fuel for Physical Activity
    • n Triglycerides
    • (fats) can be metabolized to generate ATP

    • q For
    • low intensity exercise

    • q For
    • exercise of long duration

    • q Abundant
    • energy source, even in lean people

    • q 2x
    • more energy per gram as carbohydrate
  41. Fuel for Physical Activity
    • n Carbohydrates
    • and fats can both be used as energy sources for ATP production

    • q Carbohydrates
    • are mostly used for high intensity activity

    • q Fats
    • are used for low intensity exercise







    • n Proteins
    • (amino acids) are not used as a fuel source for exercise
  42. Nutrition for Physical Activity
    • n Energy
    • needs

    • q Energy
    • needs may be higher for athletes

    • q Different
    • energy needs for males and females

    • q Depends
    • on body size

    • q Depends
    • on the type of physical activity
  43. Nutrition for Physical Activity
    • n Recommended
    • diet includes

    • q 45-65%
    • of kcal from carbohydrates

    • q Following
    • exercise: consume carbs with protein enhances muscle protein synthesis

    • q Critical
    • period (3-4 hours after exercise): to optimize glycogen storage and muscle
    • protein synthesis

    • q Carbohydrate
    • loading: alter exercise duration and carb intake to maximize muscle
    • glycogen
  44. Nutrition for Physical Activity
    • n Recommended
    • diet includes

    • q 15-25%
    • kcal fat (less than10% saturated fat)



    • q 12-20%
    • kcal from protein

    • § For
    • most: 0.8 g/kg weight

    • § For
    • athletes: slightly more

    • § Most
    • Americans already eat 2x protein needs

    • § Studies
    • do not support a high protein diet
  45. Nutrition for Physical Activity
    • n High
    • protein, low carbohydrate diet marketed for athletes is NOT recommended

    • q Too
    • low in carbohydrate and energy to store glycogen, support training and
    • performance
  46. Nutrition for Physical Activity
    • n Functions
    • of Water

    • q Temperature
    • regulation: evaporative cooling

    • q Transport
    • nutrients, hormones, waste products

    • q Component
    • of chemical reactions

    • q Part
    • of body tissues

    q Lubricant
  47. Nutrition for Physical Activity
    • n Maintaining
    • water balance is critical

    • q Drink
    • fluids before, during, and after exercise

    • q Drink
    • enough water to maintain body weight

    • q Training
    • in hot environments requires careful attention to water intake

    • q Heat
    • illnesses commonly experienced during physical activity: heat syncope, heat
    • cramps, heat exhaustion, and heatstroke
  48. Nutrition for Physical Activity
    • n The requirements for some vitamins and minerals may be
    • altered in athletes

    q B vitamins

    q Calcium

    q Iron

    n Most of these nutrients can be met with a healthy diet

    • n Iron supplementation may be required under proper
    • medical supervision
  49. Ergonomic Aids
    • n Ergonomic
    • aids: substances used to improve exercise and athletic performance

    • q Many
    • of these products are not effective

    • q Some
    • of these products are dangerous

    • q Reliable
    • research and accurate information on these products is hard to find
  50. Ergonomic Aids
    • n Ergonomic
    • aids: substances used to improve exercise and athletic performance

    • q Many
    • of these products are not effective

    • q Some
    • of these products are dangerous

    • q Reliable
    • research and accurate information on these products is hard to find

    Ergonomic Aids

    • n Ergonomic
    • aids used to increase muscles and strength include

    • q Anabolic
    • steroids

    • q DHEA
    • (dehydroepiandrosterone)

    • q GHB
    • (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid)

    q Creatine
  51. Ergonomic Aids
    • n Ergonomic
    • aids used to increase energy levels and optimize fuel use include

    q Caffeine

    q Ephedrine

    q Carnitine

    q Chromium

    q Ribose

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