Organic Chemistry Lecture I Review

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Organic Chemistry Lecture I Review
2010-05-06 17:12:07

Full Organic Chemistry Review expanded as material is being learned.
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  1. What is a Conformational Isomer?
    Conformational: Different spacial orientation i.e. Hexane. Newman Projections
  2. Energetics of Conformational Isomers Lowest to Highest.
    Anti-Staggered -- Gauche--Eclipsed--Fully Eclipsed
  3. What is a Structural Isomer?
    Structural: Different Bond-Bond connectivity. i.e. vic vs. gem-dihalide
  4. What is difference between Relative and Absolute Configuration?
    Relative: R or S Determination between 2 Chiral Carbons Absolute: R or S Determination of one Chiral Center in Single Compound.
  5. What is an Inversion of Relative Configuration?
    • Change in configuration about the Chiral Carbon when comparing to molecules. ie. R-->S or S-->R
    • Product of SN2 Reaction
  6. What is an Enantiomer?
    Comparison of "Mirror Image" compounds that have the same chemical properties.
  7. What is a Raceimic Mixture?
    • Mixture in which both "Mirror Image" components are present. No optical rotation present.
    • Product of an SN1 Reaction
  8. What is a Diastereomer?
    Trash Can Category. Isomers that are not mirror images. Optically active!
  9. What is the difference between cis/trans determinant and Z/E determinant? What Isomerism do these describ?
    cis/trans: Describes 2 substituents about a double bond found opposite and at same side respectively.

    • Z/E: Determines the location of 3-4 substituents about a double bond with priority by molecular weight.
    • Diastereomers
  10. What is an Epimer?
    Epimer: Diastereomeric comparison that has a difference about 1 chiral carbon. i.e. α β "anomers" of Glucopyranosyl

  11. What explains the higher boiling point of a cis isomer to a trans isomer?
    • Dipole moment: of a cis isomer allows for attractive intermolecular forces. The Net dipole moment is in the same direction as the substituents.

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