Organic Chemistry Lecture II
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What E1 reaction yields synthesis of an alkene?
- alkylhalide + strong bulky base
- - proton ripped and halogen drops off in ONE STEP!!!
What E2 reaction yields an alkene as a product?
- Dehydration of an Alcoholalcohol + hot strong acid
- - hydroxyl is protonated leaves as water, carbocation forms, follows Zeitzeff Rule!!!
What is the order of carbocation stability? What confers the stability? What is the name of this rule?
3terciary -- 2secondary -- 1primary -- methyl
"Electron donating" methyl groups.
What is the product of a "catalytically hydrogenated" alkene and what type of addition are the hydrogens added?
- A saturated alkane with syn addition.
What reactant oxidizes an alkene and what 3 possible product(s) are yielded?
Double bond broken to yield carbonyl group at both ends!
- Carboxylic acid, Ketone, Aldehyde
What happens to an alkene when in the presence of a hydrogen halide?
Alkyl halide: electrophilic addition of the least substituted carbon, possible skeletal rearrangement, addition of halide to carbocation.
When does addition of a hydrogen halide proceed anti-Markomnikov?
Radical Reaction: In the presence of Peroxides and ONLY H-Br will add anti-Markov.
How is an alcohol synthesized from an alkene?
Hydration of an alkene: Cold dilute acid will protonate the least substituted carbon and the resulting carbocation will bind to the hydroxyl group.
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