Name some immigration programs that affected Hispanic Americans immigration.
Immigration and Reform Act of 1986, undocumented alients applied for amnesty
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ended Mexican American war, brought Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California into the U.S. and citizenship to about 75,000 Mexican nationals still living there 1 year afterthe treaty.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882/Immigration Act of 1917 led to manual labor shortages in US. U.S. & Mexico encouraged Mexicans to move to border areas with the promise of work. Mexicans left poverty-stricken country for economic opportunities available in the U.S.
Bracero Program of 1942, U.S. couldn't recruit enough American agricultural workers. 5 million braceros (Mexican laborers) filled U.S. jobs for low wages
Operation Wetback, 1954, mass deportations of illegal Mexican workers in response to Mexicans staying beyond work visa provided in the Bracero Program.
Operation Bootstrap, 1945, encouraged U.S. companies to invest in Puerto Rico, emphasis on industry and neglect of agriculture tilted the economy farther away from its heritage of locally owned farms.
La Migracion, voluntary exodus from Puerto Rico to U.S. due to collapse in sugar industry
By U.S. law, migrants who physically reached the U.S. shoreline were permitted to stay so Cubans escaping
Immigration Act of 1965, abolished national quota; barred racial consideration in visas, 120,000 limit from Western Hemisphere, 20,000 from any one country. compromise to those who feared increase in Latin American immigration.
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, control illegal immigrants, especially from Mexico. legalize undocumented migrants who entered before 1982, amnesty for those who worked 90 days in agriculture before May 1986
California‘s Proposition 187 (1994), restricted undocumented immigrants‘ access to public services, required public employees to report undocumented immigrants, overturned in 1999, supporters blamed undocumented Mexicans for California‘s economic woes
Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (1997), legal resident status to many Cubans and Central Americans, granted permanent resident green cards to 150,000 Nicaraguans & 5,000 Cubans, allowed 250,000+ Salvadorans, Guatemalans, East Europeans to stay and apply for suspension of deportation under more lenient rules
Arizona Senate Bill 1070 (Support our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act and House Bill 2162), criminalizes illegal immigration by defining it as trespassing, allows local law enforcement agencies to question people they suspect of being undocumented (profiling)