Biomed module 6 obj. 1-3

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jnikrap
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181255
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Biomed module 6 obj. 1-3
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2012-11-02 00:22:19
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Module objective
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Module 6 objective 1-3
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  1. What are the medically important microorganism (microbes) asociated with microbiology?
    • Viruses
    • Bacteria
    • Parasites
    • Fungi
    • Others
  2. True or false: Prokaryotes have a membrane bound nucleus, membrane bound oranelles, and DNA that is organized into chromosomes
    False
  3. All living cells are clasified as ________ or _________.
    prokaryotes, eukaryotes
  4. What are the five kingdomes that all living organisms are divided into?
    • Plantae
    • Fungi
    • Animalia
    • Protista
    • Monera
  5. Prokaryotes belong to which kingdom?
    Monera - consist of all the single celled prokaryons
  6. What is the earths most abundant form of life?
    All bactira and prokaryotic organisms
  7. The average size of bacteria are ______ to _____ microns in diameter.
    • 0.5, 2.0
    • (in comparison the human red blood cell is about 7.5 microns in diametr.)
  8. What do prokaryotes have insteadeof a nucleus?
    A nuclear region called a nucleoid which is the cells chromosome.
  9. True or False: All bacteria are prokaryotic cells
    True
  10. Prokaryotes have _______ _______similare to eukaryotic cells.  These carry __________ essential to cell function.
    Inclusion bodies, molecules
  11. Describe the prokaryotic Cell Structures
    • Cytoplasm- semi-fluid substance that fills inner cellular space
    •       -primarily water with carbohydrates, lipids, and enzymes
    • Ribosomes- protein synthesis centers
    • Nucleoid (chromosome)
    • Inclusion bodies: store molecules essentioal to cell finction
    • some prokaryotes 
    •        -secrete a capsule: contributes to pathogenicity
    •        - have plasmids : Extachromosomal DNA important for transfer of genetic material.
  12. What is a capsule and what is its function?
    • A protective structure that serves as a defence mechanism
    • Tightly bound to the cell wall
    • Consist of complex polysaccharide molecules that form a gel-like comering that surrounds the bacterial cell
    • Considered to be a major contrubutor to pathogenicity
  13. What are  plasmids?
    • Self-replicating extrachromosomal DNA that carry one or more pieces of genetic information
    • Not required to sustain life
  14. What is a unique feature of a of the majority of  prokaryotic bacterial cell walls?
    A semi-rigid cell wall
  15. What is the main function of the cell wall?
    Provides shape and stability
  16. What is peptidoglycan?
    • Located in cell walls of all bacteria
    • It is an immense, covalenly linked molecule arranged in layers resembling multiple layers of a chain-link fence which give the cell support.
  17. True or false: Many antibiotics target the cell wall
    True. (i.e. penicillins)
  18. The _____ _________ is present in all living cells (both prokaryotic and eukaryotic) and regulates  the ________ of material in and out of the cell.
    Cell membrane, transport
  19. About half of all known bacteria possess filamentous organelles of locomotion call _________.
    • Flagella
    • Are said to be motile
  20. What are pili?
    • Tiny tube-like projections from the cells surface
    • Associated with adherence
  21. Flagella and Pili are examples of what?
    Surface structures
  22. Why is the shape and arrangement of prokaryotic cells important?
    • Bacteria are characterized by their shape and size
    • Before specific culture information is available, physicians use loction and appearance characteristics to begin andtibiotic therapy.
  23. What are the different kinds of prokaryotic bactirial cells and their shapes?
    • Coccus: sperical
    • Bacillus: rod
    • Coccobacillus: oval- between a cocus and a bacillus
    • Vibrio: comma shaped
    • Spirilla: loosely coiled
    • Spirochete: Tightly coiled
  24. What are the distinctive arrangements some bacteria have?
    • Diplo (pair) -Diplococci (spherical, non motile bacteria)
    • Stepto (chain) - steptococci
    • staphylo (irregular cluster)- staphylococci (grapelike cluster)
    • Tetra (group of four)
  25. A widely accepted means of grouping bacteria 
    A Gram Stain
  26. Gram positive bacteria
    • (purple)
    • Thich layer of peptidoglycan and teichoic acid causes retention of crystal violet (blue) dye
  27. Gram negative stain
    • Thin layer of peptidoglycan and high lipoprotein content; releases crystal violet dye when rinsed with alcohol
    • The safranun (pink) counterstain is retained
  28. What are the steps of a Gram stain ?
    • 1. A sample is smeared on a slide and fixed with heat.
    • 2. the slide is stained with crystal violet (purple) for 1-2 min
    • 3. Gram's iodine is used to "fix" the crystal violet (helps to retain the stain).
    • 4. Acetone is used to decolorize the slide
    • 5. Stain the slide with safranin (pink).

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