Ch. 16

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jcandyj_80alba
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Ch. 16
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2012-11-07 10:22:38
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16 Digestive System
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Ch. 16 Digestive System
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  1. What are the functions of the Digestive Sytem
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Movement/Mixing
    • Elimination/Excretion
    • Production
  2. eating, taking food in. starts at the mouth, teeth, tongue, saliva, chewing, swallowing is part of what function of the digestive system?
    Ingestions
  3. breaking the food down is known as
    digestion
  4. what are the 2 parts of digestion
    • mechanical
    • chemical
  5. breaking down the food with teeth, tongue is
    mechanical
  6. starts with saliva with the enzymes in the saliva and stomach acid is
    chemical
  7. Diffusion, Active transport
    -is the building blocks of food
    -water, vitamins, minerals, alcohol, drugs, toxins
    Absorption
  8. this process starts in the mouth, mixing the food and moving the food from mouth to the stomach
    movement/mixing
  9. this process gets rid of food and gets rid of old blood cells, and what ever that doesnt get recycled.
    Elimination/Excretion
  10. This processes produces some hormones and vitamins
    Production
  11. mastication is
    chewing
  12. deglutition is
    swallowing
  13. Alimentary Canal is an aka for
    gastrointestinal tract (GI tract)
  14. What are the accessory organs that are not part of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) or aka alimentary canal?
    • Salivary glands
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • Teeth
    • Tongue
  15. What is the largest internal organ that is the main accessory organ?
    Liver
  16. buccal cavity is an aka for
    oral cavity
  17. Ingestion start at
    • mouth (oral cavity aka buccal cavity)
    • -lips
    • -teeth
  18. libia is aka for
    lips
  19. this is known as baby teeth, milk teeth and how many teeths
    • primary dentition has 20 teeth
    • deciduous teeth
  20. this stage is the adult teeth and how many teeth in the adult stage
    secondary dentition has 32 teeth
  21. name all 32 teeth of your adult teeth (secondary dentition)
    • 8 incisors
    • 4 canine
    • 8 premolars
    • 12 molars
  22. the cutting teeth are called
    incisors (8)
  23. tearing teeth are called
    canine (4)
  24. grinding teeth are called
    • premolars (8)
    • molars (12)
  25. 3rd molar is called
    wisdom teeth
  26. After the 3rd molars (wisdom teeth) are removed we have how many teeths
    28 teeth
  27. hardest type of bone on the the teeth is
    enamel
  28. gingiva is aka for
    gums
  29. what is the function of the tongue when it comes to ingestion
    smashing food and helps form a bolus and swallowing food
  30. bolus means
    balls of food
  31. bumps on the tongue and contains taste buds are called
    papillae
  32. what are the 3 salivary glands
    • parotid salivary gland
    • sublingual salivary gland
    • submandibular salivary gland
  33. what is the largest salivary gland and is located on the cheek
    parotid salivary gland
  34. this salivary gland is found under the tongue
    sublingual salivary gland
  35. this salivary gland is under the tongue and on the back of the tongue
    submandibular salivary glands
  36. what are the components of saliva
    • 99% water and
    • 1% enzymes
  37. saliva have some
    • mucus
    • lysozyme enzyme
  38. what are the 2 lysozyme enzyme in saliva
    • lingual lipase
    • amylase
  39. lysozyme enzyme in saliva that breaks fats down
    lingual lipase
  40. lysozyme enzyme that breaks down starches
    amylase
  41. what type of saliva is thinner like water
    serous saliva
  42. what type of saliva is thicker and has proteins
    mucous saliva
  43. what produces mucus
    mucous membranes produce mucus
  44. salivary gland under the tongue, close to front of chin
    sublingual
  45. salivary gland under the tongue located on the back of the tongue
    submandibular
  46. largest salivary gland on cheek in front of ear
    parotid
  47. what are the enzymes in the the mouth and saliva
    • lingual lipase which breaks down fats
    • salivary amalyse which breaks down starches
  48. GI Tract starts at the
    • mouth (oral cavity)
    • pharynx (oropharynx)
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
  49. Starting with the mouth it begins with
    • Teeth
    • Tongue- taste buds
    • Salivary glands
    • uvula
  50. This structure in the oral cavity helps block food from getting into the nasal cavity
    uvula
  51. pharynx (oropharynx) includes
    • epiglottis
    • deglutition
  52. prevents you from choking and food getting into the lungs
    epiglottis
  53. swallowing is
    deglutition
  54. aka for pharynx
    oropharynx
  55. lower part of pharynx is what type of muscles
    smooth muscle and involuntary muscle
  56. this is the conscious and upper part of pharynx is made of what type of muscle
    skeletal muscle and is voluntary
  57. wavelike contraction for movement through the GI tract and is made of smooth muscles this is called
    peristalsis
  58. muscles that stays contracted all the time and only opens up to allow food to pass through and goes back to contracted state is a circular, muscle wich controls an opening this is called a
    sphincter
  59. lower esophageal aka is
    cardiac sphincter
  60. How many inches is the esophagus
    12 inch tube
  61. The whole GI tract is made of what
    mucous membrane
  62. mucous membrane has how many layers
    4 layers
  63. what are the 4 layers of the mucous membrane?
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  64. this layer is thick and slick. made of mucous membrane. it is the inner most layer. produces mucus. most variable layer. digestion and absorbtion. protects from bacteria and infection.
    mucosa
  65. what type of tissue is the mucous membrane made of
    endothelium
  66. goblet cells are
    single cell gland
  67. what layer is the most unique layer and why is it unique
    the mucosa is the most unique layer because it changes the most in the digestive tract
  68. greater omentum
    fat apron in front of our stomach
  69. this layer has glands, blood vessels, lymph vessel, lymphatic tissue- Peyer's Patches, nerve bundles-nerve plexes
    sumucosa
  70. what type of tissue is the submucosa layer made of
    connective tissue
  71. this layer has 2 layers of muscles and 3 layers in the stomach
    • muscularis layer and they are longitudinal and circular and in the stomach has longitudinal, circular, and oblique muscles
    • mixing waves
  72. this layer is made of serous membrane, produces serous fluid and forms connecting membranes
    serosa
  73. what are the connecting membrane of serosa
    • mesentary
    • meso colon
    • peritoneum
  74. the peritoneum has a outer layer called? and an inner layer called?
    • parietal (outer layer)
    • visceral (inner layer)
  75. the space inside the mucosa is called the
    lumen
  76. stomach starts at the
    lower esophageal sphincter aka cardiac sphincter
  77. what is the extra storage area on the upper right side of the body of the stomach called
    fundus
  78. to the left side of the body of the stomach is called "gate keeper" and is the main cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that is called the
    pylorus
  79. and next to the pyloris is the
    pyloric sphincter
  80. stomach has ridges inside called
    rugae
  81. what structure allows the stomach to expand like an accordian
    rugae
  82. what is an aka name for gastric pits
    gastric glands
  83. this area has tubes and sites of enzymes and stomach acid production
    gastric pits aka gastric glands
  84. the gastric pits have mucous cells which produces
    mucus
  85. the gastric pits also produces chief cells which produce what and what is an aka for chief cells
    • chief cells aka zymogenic cells
    • chief cells produce pepsinogen (inactive)
    • pepsin (active)
  86. what is the inactive form of enzyme produced by the stomach in the gastric pits by the chife cells aka zymogenic cells to digest proteins
    pepsiongen
  87. what is the active form of enzyme produced by the stomach in the gastric pits by the chife cells aka zymogenic cells to digest proteins
    pepsin
  88. what is the most powerful enzyme produced by stomach to break down proteins
    pepsin
  89. in the stomach in the gastric pits what produce Hydrochloric (Hcl) Acid
    parietal cell
  90. what is HcL (Hydrochloric Acid) and what does it do?
    stomach acid and it breaks down food molecules down
  91. what is the pH of stomach acid
    1-3
  92. what is the intrinsic factor of the stomach in the parietal cells
    helps body absorb vit. B-12
  93. is an endocrine in the stomach produces gastrin (hormone) and Chyme
    G cell
  94. is a hormone that stimulates digestion produced by the G cell in the stomach
    gastrin
  95. this is a mixture of food and digestive enzymes and HcL acid
    chyme
  96. what is the name of the muscles between the eyes
    corrugator
  97. small intestine has 3 division and is about 20 ft long. what are the 3 divisions
    • duodenum (1 ft. or 12 inch)
    • jejunum (8 ft)
    • ileum (11 ft)
  98. what is the largest part of the digestive tract and is hwere most of the digestion and absorbtion is done
    small intestine
  99. which part of the small intestine receives chyme from stomach
    duodenum
  100. breaks down starches
    amalyse
  101. carbs get broken down to
    glucose and fats
  102. glucose and fats get broken down to
    glycerol
  103. glycerol is a
    fatty acid and is what get absorbed from fats
  104. proteins are broken down to
    polypeptides
  105. polypeptides are broken down to
    peptides
  106. peptides are broken down to
    amino acids and is what is absorbed by the body
  107. what ezymes comes from the pancreas
    pepsin and trypsine
  108. enzyme peptidase converts to
    peptides to amino acids
  109. which enzyme digest proteins
    pepsin
  110. what are the building blocks of amino acids
    trypsin - proteins-polypeptides-peptidases-peptides-amino acids
  111. what enzyme breaks down starches (carbs)
    amylase
  112. what is a complex carbohydrates (starch, fiber)
    polysaccharides
  113. dissaccharides are _____ and is most common disaccharide is ____
    sucrose (table sugar)
  114. sucrose is
    glucose + fructose
  115. maltose is
    malt sugar
  116. malt sugar is
    glucose + glucose
  117. Lactose  is
    milk sugar, a mixture of glucose + glucose
  118. this is milk sugar and is a mixture of glucose + galactose
    lactose
  119. sucrose, glucose, maltose, lactose are all a form of
    monosacharides
  120. lipids are 2 components of fats. what are the 2 components of fats for lipids
    • fatty acids
    • glycerol
  121. this enzyme breaks down fats into fatty acids and glyceral
    Lipase
  122. a milk protein most people are allergic to
    casein
  123. breaks down lactose
    lactase
  124. breaks down maltose
    maltase
  125. breaks down sucrose
    sucrase
  126. receives chyme from stomach, bile from gallbladder, and digestive juice from pancreas
    duodennum
  127. gut brain
    entericnervous system (evs)
  128. upper GI
    gastroenterology
  129. Inside of small intestines have these cicular folds called
    plica circulares
  130. what is the function of plica circulares
    • increase surface area
    • decrease or slow down passage of food
  131. on the surface of villi and in each villus it has what to absorb fats
    lacteals
  132. what forms triglyceride
    fats-fatty acids andglycerol form trigyceride
  133. triglyceride gets packaged in with cholestrol and proteins called
    chylomicron
  134. chylomicron is a combination of
    triglyceride, cholestrol, and proteins
  135. what are the fat soluable vitamins
    A D E K
  136. lymph capillaries absorb
    fats
  137. blood capillaries absorb
    glucose, fructose, galactose, amino acids
  138. water soluable vitamins are
    B, C, Choline
  139. waht is another name for chylomicron
    lipoproteins
  140. a combination of triglyceride, cholestrol, and proteins is
    chylomicron aka lipoproteins
  141. Low proteins and high cholestrol is
    LDL Low density lipoproteins
  142. more proteins and less cholestrol you have
    HDL High densit lipoproteins
  143. vldl is
    very low density lipoproteins
  144. triglycerides or aka triacyglycerols gets absorbed in
    the lacteals
  145. bile is produced by
    liver
  146. this is a mixture of bile salts, bile pigments, cholestrol.
    bile
  147. bile is stored in
    gallbladder
  148. what emulsifies fats
    bile
  149. what makes poop brown or green and is the by prdoucto f red blood cells
    • emulsification
    • bilisubin-bilepigment
  150. bile is produced by the liver and goes through what duct
    hepatic duct to cystic duct to gall bladder
  151. what contracts and squeeze bile out is the
    gall bladder
  152. what trigger squeezin in the bile duct is the
    fats
  153. in the stomach what hormone increase Hcl acid and increase gastric emptying
    gastrin (hormone)
  154. in the duodenum what hormone increase secretion of bile and increase bicarbonate ion
    secretin
  155. what causes contraction of gall bladder and increase pancreatic enzymes
    CCK cholecystokinin
  156. what increases pH more basic, alkaline
    bicarbonate ion
  157. what is the largest internal organ responsible for metabolism of carbs, fats, amino acids and production of blood proteins
    liver
  158. carbs =
    fats
  159. what organ detoxify, recycles RBCs, stores fat solualbe vitamin (ADEK) sotres glycogen (glucose product) (grape and raison anology) and production of bile
    liver
  160. what is 99% acini cells and 1% of islets of Langerfhens
    pancreas
  161. where is the pancreas
    below and behind stomach
  162. what part of the pancreas is what leads into the duodenum
    pancreatic duct
  163. pepsin and typsin both break down
    proteins
  164. what separates the small intestine from the large intestines
    ileocecal valve (sphincter)
  165. WHAT IS THE 1ST part of the large intestine called
    secum
  166. colon is also known as
    large intestine
  167. what are the parts of the large intestine
    • secum
    • ascending
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anus
  168. large intestine digest
    bacteria
  169. what vitamin does bacteria produce
    vitamin k
  170. the large intestine also absorbs
    • water
    • vitamin k
    • minerals
    • ions
  171. large intestine forms
    feces
  172. cecum =
    ileocecal valve (sphincter)
  173. large intestine starts at the
    cecum aka ileocecal valve (sphincter)
  174. pouch of large intestine is called
    haustra
  175. the process of mashing feces is called
    haustra churning
  176. strip of tissue is a combo of smooth muscle and connective tissue is called
    taeniae coli
  177. the fat pouches on taeniae coli on the large intestine are called
    epiploic appendages
  178. name the structure of the large intestine from start to end
    • cecum
    • ascending colon R or hepatic flexure
    • transverse colon L or splenic flexure
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon S shaped
    • Rectum muscular canal
    • anal canal
    • anus
  179. turns on large intestine are called
    flexures
  180. the anus has 2 sphincters
    internal and external
  181. which sphincter on the anus is involuntary smooth muscle
    internal sphincter
  182. which sphincter on the anus is voluntary skeletal muscle
    external sphincter
  183. which vitamin is important for blood clotting and is produced by bacteria
    vitamin k
  184. deciduous teeth
    baby teeth
  185. what appendage is attached to the cecum
    appendix
  186. stomach produce
    • Hcl -hydrochloric acid
    • intrensic factor
    • vit. B12
  187. what enzyme is produced in saliva and pancreas
    amylase
  188. saliva produces what enzymes
    amylase and lipase

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