Bio unit 3 test

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  1. 3 Phases of Growth
    1.Exponential Growth 2. Growth Slows down 3. Growth Stops
  2. Logistic growth
    • when
    • a population’s growth slows then stops following a period of exponential
    • growth.
  3. Density-dependent Limiting Factors
    - Competition,predation, herbivory, parasitism, disease, and stress from over crowding
  4. Density-independent Limiting Factors.
    Hurricanes, droughts,floods, wildfires, 
  5. Demography-
    scientific study of human populations
  6. Demographic Transition
    dramatic change from high birth rates and death rates to low birthrates and death rates.
  7. Biodiversity
    the total of all the genetically based variation in all organisms in the biosphere
  8. Ecosystem Diversity-
    variety of habitats, communities, and ecological processes in the biosphere.
  9. Species Diversity-
    the number of different species in the biosphere or in a particular area.
  10. Genetic Diversity-
    refers to the sum total of all different genetic information carried by aspecies, or by all organisms on earth
  11. Humans affect on biodiversity
    hunting, destroying etc.
  12. Ecological Hot Spot-
    a place where significant numbers of species and habitats are in immediatedanger of extinction.
  13. Binomial Nomenclature
    • Species – Camelus Bactrianus     
    • Genus – Camelus
    • Family - Camelidae  
    • Order - Artiodactyla
    • Class - Mammalia    
    • Phylum - Chordata    
    • Kingdom – Animalia
  14. Six Kindoms
    •  Eubacteria  
    • Archaebacteria  
    • Protista    
    • Fungi   
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  15. Archea and Bacteria
    unicellular and prokaryotic
  16. Eukarya
     all organisms that have a nucleus
  17. Cell Theory
    • -All living things aremade up of cells
    • -Cells are the basicunits of structure and function in living things    
    • -New cells are produced from existing cells
  18. Cell Membrane
    in all cells, a thin flexible layer barrier that surrounds all cells,  regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell
  19. Autogenic Hypothesis
    Eukaryotic cells generated within prokaryotic cells
  20. Endosymbiotic Hypothesis
    Larger prokaryotic cells engulfing smaller ones
  21. Cytoplasm 
     portion of the cell outside the nucleus
  22. Organelles
    mini organs
  23. Vacuoles 
     store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  24. Lysosomes 
    breakdown lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be usedby the rest of the cell. They are also involved in breaking down organellesthat have outlived their usefulness.
  25. Cytoskeleton –
     helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement.
  26. Microfilaments 
    form extensive networks in some cells and produce a tough flexible framework thatsupports the cell, also help the cell move.
  27. Centrioles
    located near the nucleus and help organize cell division
  28. ribosomes.
    produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from DNA.
  29. Endoplasmic Reticulum
     where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell.
  30. Golgi Apparatus
    • proteins move from the rough ER onto the GA, which is a stack of flattened membranes that sorts, and packages
    • proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
  31. Chloroplasts 
    biological equivalents of solar power plants capture energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
  32. Mitochondria
    powerplants of the cell, convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
  33. Cell Wall 
     strong supporting layer around the membrane (plantae).
  34. Lipid Bilayer 
    gives cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings.
  35. Selectively Permeable
    –Some substances can pass across them and others cannot.
  36. Diffusion 
    process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. (Passive transport)
  37. Passive Transport 
    the movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy is called passive transport.
  38. Facilitated Diffusion
     process by which molecules cannot directly diffuse across the membrane pass through special protein channels.
  39. Aquaporins 
     waterchannel proteins, that allows water to pass right through them.
  40. Isotonic 
    same strength, perfect balance of concentration
  41. Hypertonic 
    above strength, higher concentration outside cell rather than inside cell.
  42. Hypotonic 
    below strength, low concentration outside the cell, and a high concentration inside the cell.
  43. Osmotic pressure 
    net movement of water out of or into a cell produces a force known as osmotic pressure
  44. Active Transport
    the movement of materials against a concentration difference is known as active transport, and it requires energy.
  45. Endocytosis 
    process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane.
  46. Exocytosis
    cellsr eleasing large amounts of material
  47. Phagocytosis 
    the form of how amoeba’s eat
  48. Excretion 
     the process by which metabolic wastes are eliminated to maintain homeostasis.
  49. Ureters 
    transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
  50. Urinary Bladder
     where urine is stored
  51. Kidney Funtion
    As waste-laden blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, the kidney removes urea, excesswater and minerals, and other waste products
  52. Nephrons 
    processing units in the kidneys
  53. Filtration 
     passing liquid or gas through a filter to remove wastes
  54. Glomerulus
     where filtration of blood takes place.
  55. Bowman’s Capsule 
    a hollow cup shaped structure at the top of each nephron
  56. Reabsorption.
     the process by which water and dissolved substances are taken back into the blood
  57. Loop of Henle
     responsible for conserving water and minimizing the volume of the filtrate (Section of the nephron tubule)
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Bio unit 3 test
2012-11-02 04:52:50

Bio Unit 3 test
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