Bio unit 3 test
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3 Phases of Growth
1.Exponential Growth 2. Growth Slows down 3. Growth Stops
- a population’s growth slows then stops following a period of exponential
Density-dependent Limiting Factors
- Competition,predation, herbivory, parasitism, disease, and stress from over crowding
Density-independent Limiting Factors.
Hurricanes, droughts,floods, wildfires,
scientific study of human populations
dramatic change from high birth rates and death rates to low birthrates and death rates.
the total of all the genetically based variation in all organisms in the biosphere
variety of habitats, communities, and ecological processes in the biosphere.
the number of different species in the biosphere or in a particular area.
refers to the sum total of all different genetic information carried by aspecies, or by all organisms on earth
Humans affect on biodiversity
hunting, destroying etc.
Ecological Hot Spot-
a place where significant numbers of species and habitats are in immediatedanger of extinction.
- Species – Camelus Bactrianus
- Genus – Camelus
- Family - Camelidae
- Order - Artiodactyla
- Class - Mammalia
- Phylum - Chordata
- Kingdom – Animalia
Archea and Bacteria
unicellular and prokaryotic
all organisms that have a nucleus
- -All living things aremade up of cells
- -Cells are the basicunits of structure and function in living things
- -New cells are produced from existing cells
in all cells, a thin flexible layer barrier that surrounds all cells, regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell
Eukaryotic cells generated within prokaryotic cells
Larger prokaryotic cells engulfing smaller ones
portion of the cell outside the nucleus
store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
breakdown lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be usedby the rest of the cell. They are also involved in breaking down organellesthat have outlived their usefulness.
helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement.
form extensive networks in some cells and produce a tough flexible framework thatsupports the cell, also help the cell move.
located near the nucleus and help organize cell division
produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from DNA.
where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell.
- proteins move from the rough ER onto the GA, which is a stack of flattened membranes that sorts, and packages
- proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
biological equivalents of solar power plants capture energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
powerplants of the cell, convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
strong supporting layer around the membrane (plantae).
gives cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings.
–Some substances can pass across them and others cannot.
process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. (Passive transport)
the movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy is called passive transport.
process by which molecules cannot directly diffuse across the membrane pass through special protein channels.
waterchannel proteins, that allows water to pass right through them.
same strength, perfect balance of concentration
above strength, higher concentration outside cell rather than inside cell.
below strength, low concentration outside the cell, and a high concentration inside the cell.
net movement of water out of or into a cell produces a force known as osmotic pressure
the movement of materials against a concentration difference is known as active transport, and it requires energy.
process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane.
cellsr eleasing large amounts of material
the form of how amoeba’s eat
the process by which metabolic wastes are eliminated to maintain homeostasis.
transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
where urine is stored
As waste-laden blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, the kidney removes urea, excesswater and minerals, and other waste products
processing units in the kidneys
passing liquid or gas through a filter to remove wastes
where filtration of blood takes place.
a hollow cup shaped structure at the top of each nephron
the process by which water and dissolved substances are taken back into the blood
Loop of Henle
responsible for conserving water and minimizing the volume of the filtrate (Section of the nephron tubule)
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