Ch. 8 psych

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Ch. 8 psych
2012-11-02 01:32:45


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  1. thinking
    the mental process of manipulating info mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decicisons,and reflecting critically or creatively
  2. find and frame problems (steps in problem solving)
    asking questions in creative ways and "seeing" what others do not
  3. develop good problem-solving strategies (steps in problem solving)
    • subgoals
    • algorithyms
    • neuristics
  4. subgoals
    intermediate goals or problems that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solution
  5. algorithyms
    strategies including formulas, instructions, and the testing of all possible solutions that gurantee a solution to a problem
  6. neuristics
    shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not gurantee an answer
  7. evaluate solutions (steps in problem solving)
    once you solve a problem, you won't know if it works until  you do it. have in mind a clear criteria for the effectiveness of the solution
  8. rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time (problem solving steps)
    rethink/redefine problems continually; how can you improve it
  9. fixation (obstacles to problem solving)
    using prior strategy and failing to look @ a problem from a fresh new perspective
  10. functional fixedness (obstacles to problem solving)
    failing to solve a problem as a result of fixation on a thing's usual functions
  11. inductive reasoning
    reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations
  12. deductive reasoning
    reasoning from a general case that is known to be true to a specifc instance
  13. confirmation bias (heuristics)
    the tendency to search for and use info that supports our ideas rather than refutes them
  14. hindsight bias (heuristics)
    the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we acurately predicted an outcome
  15. availability heuristic (heuristics)
    a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imaging similar events
  16. framing
    presenting info either positevly or negatively in order to change the influence it has on a individual or group
  17. comparison
    any process of comparing entities in pairs to judge which of each entity is preferred, or has a greater amount of some quantitative property.
  18. optimism
    an outlook on life such that one maintains a view of the world as a positive place. It is the opposite of pessimism
  19. pessimisim
    an inclination to emphasize adverse aspects, conditions, and possibilities or to expect the worst possible outcome
  20. critical thinking
    • thinking reflectively and productively and evalutating the evidence
    • -mindfulness
    • -open-mindness
  21. mindfulness
    state of being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities
  22. open-mindness
    state of ebing receptive to other ways of looking @ things
  23. creative thinking
    • thinking outside of the box
    • -creativity
    • -divergent thinking
    • -convergent thinking
  24. creativity
    ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems
  25. divergent thinking
    thinking that produces many solutions to the same problem
  26. convergent thinking
    thinking that produces the single best solution to a problem
  27. intelligence 
    all purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experince
  28. first working IQ test
  29. intelligence quotient
    an individual's mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100 
  30. mental age
    an individuals mental develpment relative to that of other's
  31. chronological age
    age from birth
  32. heritability
    proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the memebers
  33. gifted
    possesing high intelligence an IQ of 130 or higher and or superior talent in a particular area
  34. levels of mental retardation
    • mild 50-70
    • moderates 35-50
    • severe 20-34
    • profound anything below 20
  35. sternburg's types of intelligence
    • analytical intelligence
    • creative intelligence
    • pratical intelligence
  36. analytical intelligence
    ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare and contrast
  37. creative intelligence
    ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine
  38. pratical intelligence
    ability to use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice
  39. artificial intelligence
    scientific feild that focuses on creating machines capable of perfomring activites that aquire intelligence when done by humans
  40. problem solving
    mental process of finding an appropiate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily avaliable
  41. standardization
    development of uniform procedures for administrering/ scoring a test and the creation of norms for the test
  42. reliability
    extent to which a test yeilds a consistent, reproducable measure of performance
  43. phonology
    a language's sound system