Bio ch 6

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Bio ch 6
2012-11-02 02:46:03

bio ch6
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  1. What two major functions do organelles serve?
    • 1.  to compartmentalize cellular metabolism
    • 2.  to increase the membrane surface area for membrane-bound biochemical reactions
  2. what is the plasma membrane?
    The outer limit of the cytoplasm responsible for the regulation of substances moving into and out of cells
  3. what is DNA?
    large double stranded helical molecule that contains the genetic material of all living organisms
  4. what is cytoplasm?
    all the parts of the cell that surround the central nucleus (eukaryotes) or nucleoid region (prokaryotes)
  5. what is the cell wall?
    A rigid external layer of material surrounding the plasma membrane of cells in plays, fungi, bacteria, and some protists, providing cell protection and support
  6. what is the nucleus?
    The central region of Eukaryotic cells, separated by membranes from surrounding cytoplasm, where DNA replication and messenger RNA transcription occur.
  7. what is the nuclear envelope?
    In Eukaryotes, membranes separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm
  8. what is a nuclear pore?
    A large, octagonally symmetrica, cylindrical structure that functions to exchange molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm and prevents the transport of material not meant to cross the nuclear membrane.  A nuclear pore--a channel through the complex--is the path for the exchange molecules
  9. What is the nucleolus?
    the nuclear site of rRNA transcription, processing, and ribosome assemply in eukaryotes
  10. what are chromosomes?
    in eukaryotic cells, a linear structure composed of a single DNA molecule complexed with protein.  Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes
  11. what is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
    • ER with no ribosomes attached to its membrane surfaces.  Smooth ER has various functions including:
    • synthesis of lipids that become part of cell membranes
  12. what is the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
    • ER with many ribosomes studding its outer surface
    • Modifies new poly peptide chains
  13. What is the Golgi Apparatus?
    In eukaryotes, the organelle responsible for the final modification, sorting, and distribution of proteins and lipids
  14. What are transport vesicles?
    transports proteins from ER to Golgi and from golgi to plasma membrane
  15. Whis are lysosomes?
    membrane-bound vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes for the digestion of many complex molecules
  16. What is the central vacuole?
    a large, water filled organelle in plant cells that maintains the turgor of the cell and controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap
  17. What are mitochondria?
    Membrane bound organelles responsible for the synthesis of most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells
  18. What are chloroplasts?
    The sites of photosynthesis in plant cells
  19. What are ribosomes?
    • Located on the RER
    • carries out protein synthesis by translating mRNA into chains of amino acids
  20. what is a cytoskeleton?
    the interconnected system of protein fibers and tubes that extends throughout the cytoplasm of a eukaryote cell
  21. What are flagella?
    a long, thread like cellular appendage responsible for movement; found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but with different structures and modes of locomotion
  22. what are cilia?
    A short, microscopic, hairlike vibrating structure. Cilia occur in large numbers on the surface of certain cells, either causing currents in the surrounding fluid, or, in some protozoans and other small organisms, providing propulsion
  23. what are cell to cell connections?
    protein responsible for selectively binding cells together
  24. What is the extra cellular matrix?
    A molecular system that supports and protects cells and provides mechanical linkages