Bio ch 6
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What two major functions do organelles serve?
- 1. to compartmentalize cellular metabolism
- 2. to increase the membrane surface area for membrane-bound biochemical reactions
what is the plasma membrane?
The outer limit of the cytoplasm responsible for the regulation of substances moving into and out of cells
what is DNA?
large double stranded helical molecule that contains the genetic material of all living organisms
what is cytoplasm?
all the parts of the cell that surround the central nucleus (eukaryotes) or nucleoid region (prokaryotes)
what is the cell wall?
A rigid external layer of material surrounding the plasma membrane of cells in plays, fungi, bacteria, and some protists, providing cell protection and support
what is the nucleus?
The central region of Eukaryotic cells, separated by membranes from surrounding cytoplasm, where DNA replication and messenger RNA transcription occur.
what is the nuclear envelope?
In Eukaryotes, membranes separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm
what is a nuclear pore?
A large, octagonally symmetrica, cylindrical structure that functions to exchange molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm and prevents the transport of material not meant to cross the nuclear membrane. A nuclear pore--a channel through the complex--is the path for the exchange molecules
What is the nucleolus?
the nuclear site of rRNA transcription, processing, and ribosome assemply in eukaryotes
what are chromosomes?
in eukaryotic cells, a linear structure composed of a single DNA molecule complexed with protein. Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes
what is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
- ER with no ribosomes attached to its membrane surfaces. Smooth ER has various functions including:
- synthesis of lipids that become part of cell membranes
what is the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
- ER with many ribosomes studding its outer surface
- Modifies new poly peptide chains
What is the Golgi Apparatus?
In eukaryotes, the organelle responsible for the final modification, sorting, and distribution of proteins and lipids
What are transport vesicles?
transports proteins from ER to Golgi and from golgi to plasma membrane
Whis are lysosomes?
membrane-bound vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes for the digestion of many complex molecules
What is the central vacuole?
a large, water filled organelle in plant cells that maintains the turgor of the cell and controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap
What are mitochondria?
Membrane bound organelles responsible for the synthesis of most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells
What are chloroplasts?
The sites of photosynthesis in plant cells
What are ribosomes?
- Located on the RER
- carries out protein synthesis by translating mRNA into chains of amino acids
what is a cytoskeleton?
the interconnected system of protein fibers and tubes that extends throughout the cytoplasm of a eukaryote cell
What are flagella?
a long, thread like cellular appendage responsible for movement; found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but with different structures and modes of locomotion
what are cilia?
A short, microscopic, hairlike vibrating structure. Cilia occur in large numbers on the surface of certain cells, either causing currents in the surrounding fluid, or, in some protozoans and other small organisms, providing propulsion
what are cell to cell connections?
protein responsible for selectively binding cells together
What is the extra cellular matrix?
A molecular system that supports and protects cells and provides mechanical linkages
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