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An example of an upper respiratory tract infection is
Streptococcus pyogenes is
the causative organism of "strep throat," a common infection in the winter months. Other bacterial infections of the upper tract invade the ears, eyes, sinuses and the upper bronchioles.
Lower respiratory tract infections are the
Capsulated organisms that cause pneumonias include
Gastrointestinal bacterial infections, often
acquired from contaminated food or water.
Contaminated food or water include
- Staphylococcus aureus
- E. coli O157:H7
E. coli 0157: H7, common to the intestinal tract of
cattle, has been linked to contaminated meats and vegetables.
Nervous System infections of the cerebrospinal fluid and meninges can be caused by several bacteria. Common examples are
Haemophilus Influenzae- particularly in children.
Neisseria Meningitidis- in young adults.
Some organisms secrete toxins which either
cause diseas directly, or trigger an abnormal response in the body which causes illness.
Examples of toxin-induced infections
Botulism (clostridium botulinum)
Tetanus (clostridium tetani)
Toxic Shock Syndrome (staphylococcus aureus)
Two classes that must be intracellular to survive:
Obligate intracellular organisms
require a eukaryotic cell for replication.
Chlamydia trachomatis causes a variety of human infections including:
Trachoma (eye infection that may lead to blindness)
Sexually-transmitted diseases causing pelvic inflammatory disease and urethritis.
Conjunctivitis in newborns acquired during birthing process.
Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the US causing ______ _______ _________ in women and ________ in males. Another variant causes _____ ______ in newborns acquired during passage through birth canal.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); urethritis; epidemic conjunctivitis
Obligate intracellular parasite
Transmitted by a vector (lice, ticks)
Transmitted to humans through bite of the vector
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is a systemic disease that is common in many states in the US.
Tiniest free-living organisms.
Do not have a cell wall.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae- causes primary atypical pneumonia.