CHEMISTRY F321 - Atoms, Bonds and Groups: 1.1 Moles, Equations and Acids

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CHEMISTRY F321 - Atoms, Bonds and Groups: 1.1 Moles, Equations and Acids
2012-12-23 09:32:35
Moles Equations Acids

1.1 Moles, Equations and Acids
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  1. Amount of substance
    The quantity of substance, expressed in a unit called the mole. This measures a number of particles.
  2. Avagadro's constant
    The number of particles in a mole: 6.02 x 1023
  3. What does a mole measure?
    An amount of substance/particles/molecules/atoms
  4. what is the unit for molar mass?
  5. Molar mass
    The mass of one mole of substance (Mr)
  6. Empirical formula
    The lowest whole number ration of atoms of each element in a compound
  7. Molecular formula
    The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
  8. 4 steps to calculate empirical formula
    • 1. Calculate moles (or mole percentages)
    • 2. Calculate the lowest ratio (by dividing by the smallest)
    • 3. Make them all whole numbers
    • 4. State the formula¬†
  9. How do you determine the molecular formula from the empirical formula?
    Take the given molar mass and DIVIDE by the empirical formula mass (using your EF) 
  10. Find moles, involving mass.
    Moles = Mass / Mr
  11. Find moles, involving gas volume.
    Moles = Volume / 24
  12. Find moles, involving solution volume and concentration.
    Moles = Volume x Concentration
  13. How can number of moles be deduced from a previously balanced equation?
    Using ratios
  14. What can we use to determine ratio in the formulae of a compound?
    Its valency
  15. Valency can tell us what about the atom...
    Which group it is in (in the periodic table)
  16. The -ate suffix tells us...
    the ion contains oxygen and is negatively charged
  17. Definition of a mole
    6.02 x 1023 particles
  18. Acid
    Releases H+ ions in solution. (Proton donor)
  19. Formula for hydrochloric acid
  20. Formulae for sulphuric acid
  21. Formulae for nitric acid
  22. Base
    Proton acceptor
  23. Alkali
    A soluble base that releases OH- ions in solution
  24. Salt
    When the H+ ion of an acid is replaced by a metal ion or NH4+
  25. What is OBSERVED when acids react with a metal oxide?
    Solid disappears
  26. What is OBSERVED when an acid reacts with metal carbonates?
    Solid disappears and bubbles are seen
  27. What is OBSERVED when an acid reacts with an alkali?
    There is NO observable change
  28. Anhydrous
    The compound that remains when the water of crystallisation is removed from a hydrated salt.
  29. Hydrated
    A complex compound which has water molecules incorporated
  30. Water of Crystallisation
    Water molecules which make up part of the crystal structure of a compound (easily removed by heating)
  31. List the 4 steps to determine the formula of a hydrated salt
    • 1. Calculate the mass of water (mass of hydrated - mass of anhydrous)
    • 2. Calcualte moles of anhydrous and moles of water
    • 3. Calculate the mole ratio between the anhydrous and the water
    • 4. State the formula of the hydrated salt