A AND P review 2

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A AND P review 2
2012-11-02 16:14:10
anatomy physiology animal medicen

anatomy and physiology
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  1. At what age are the dewclaws removed?
    3-5 days old
  2. where are the sweat glands located on a dog?
    skin applecrine nostrils footpads
  3. which four chambers make up the heart?
    • left atrium     right atrium
    • left ventricle   right ventricle
  4. list the four main veins for veinupuncture
    femoral, cephalic, saphinvous, jugular
  5. list the four organs that nmake up the lympathic system
    lymphnodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus
  6. what types of vessels are deepest?
  7. what  vessels have bacl flow valves and why?
    veins, to stop pooling of the blood due to gravitt
  8. the lyphnodes and glands are located in which five areas?
    submandibular, pre-scapula, axillary, popliteal, inguinal
  9. list the main organs that make up the respiratory system
    nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx,trachea, bronchi,lungs
  10. purring in cats is caused by what?
    vibration of the blood vessels in the chest
  11. what is another name for the larynx?
    voice box
  12. what is the immune sytems greatesr asset in fighting infection?
    white blood cells, lymphocytes
  13. what is the medical word for windpipe?
  14. name the three parts of the thorax
    right pleural cavity, left pleural cavity, mediastinum
  15. what is the cheif muscle for respiration
  16. eliminating urine?
  17. primary organ of male reproductive system?
  18. primary organ of female reproduction ssystem
  19. at what age do most cats come into heat?
    5.5-6 months of age
  20. what is the gestation period for cats and dogs?
    63-65 days
  21. cats and dogs have how many adult teeth?
    • dogs-42
    • cats-30
  22. cats can become pregnant at any time, why?
  23. they are stimulous ovulators
  24. which two systems make up the genitourinary system?
    reproductive and urinary systems of both sex'es
  25. the diaphragm seperates which two body cavitys?
    abdominal and thoratic cavitys
  26. many intact male dogs develope what dx?
    prostate, testicle cancer
  27. function of the ovarie?
    ovulation and secreation of estrogen
  28. if the nail is cut to far down you can cut the?
  29. dogs have how many mls of circualting blood in there bodys?
    • 90ml dog
    • 70 ml cat
  30. thin skin is found on whart areas of the dog nd cat?
    perianus, inguinal, under armpits
  31. what is the main function of the pancreas/
    create insulen to regulate blood sugar and carbohydrate intake
  32. what are the two main functions of the G.I system?
    nutrient intake and solid waste elimination
  33. what is the outside of the eat called?
  34. list the five special sences
    taste, smell, hearing, sight/vision, touch
  35. what is another term for nostrils, 
  36. list four glands of the endocrine system
    pituitary, parathyroid, thyroid, pineal, ovaries, testes, pancreas
  37. what endocrine gland is also known as the orchestra leader?
    pituitary gland
  38. numbe one endocrine disease in cats
  39. 3 main types of blood vessels
    veins arteris and capillaries
  40. four main functions of the muscular system?
    achieve movement , support and maintain posture, produce body heat, help form many internal organs such as heart, uterus, lungs intestines.
  41. what types of cells do muscles have?
    long slender fibres, myocyte
  42. lateral
    towards the side
  43. the capula is what type of bone
    flat bone
  44. the inner ear is what type of bone
    irregular bone
  45. what is flehming?
    flehming is when the lip is curled upand extra scent is to the jacobsons organ on the roof of the mouth which traps odor and sends scent molecule to the brain
  46. what is arrector pili?
    smooth muscles attatched to hairs on dorsum which errecr and contract when stimulated
  47. what are bursae?
    sacs of connective tissue lined with a synovial membrane and synovial fluid (think bang elbow)
  48. which system provides vocalization?
  49. kittens and puppies open eyes at what age?
    10-14 days
  50. eardrum
    tympanic membrane
  51. the skin is a receptor for what four secretions
    touch, pain, heat/cold and pressure
  52. which glands secreate tears?
    lacrimo glands
  53. what are the two functions of the ear
    hearing and equillibrium
  54. what is the left side of the heart responsible for?
    reoxygenating and delivering to the rest of the body
  55. list the three main functions of the urinary system
    formation, transportation/storage, elimination of urine
  56. of which two layers are the skin composed?
    dermis, epidermis
  57. list three types of connective tissue
    reticular, loose, dense fibrous
  58. epihora
    excess tears due to obstruction of the lacrimal gland
  59. how are bones of the skull united?
    seams |(sutures)
  60. the nervous system is broken down into two parts
    central CNS peripheral PNS
  61. the brain has aprox how many neurons
    900 million
  62. enuculation
    surgical removal of the eyeball
  63. salivary glands?
    parotid, mandibular, sublingual, zygomatic
  64. list the four most common endocrine glands that become diseased
    pancreas, thyroid gland, petuitary,ovaries, testes
  65. names the parts that make up the G.I system
    mouth oral, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
  66. name the 10 body systems
    • genitouinary
    • reproductive
    • resporatory
    • urinary
    • gastrointestinal
    • endocrine
    • lymphatic
    • cardiovascular
    • integumentary
    • muscular
  67. three parts of the small intestine
    duodnum, jejunum, ileum
  68. what are the five stages of estrus
    • pro-estrus
    • estrus
    • met-estrus
    • di-estrus
    • an-estrus
  69. what gland produces calcitonin
  70. what hormone affects the circadian rythms?
    pineal gland, produces melatonin
  71. what is the function of the parathyroid gland?
    regulate the calcium and phosphourous content in the blood and bones
  72. deglutition
    act of swallowing
  73. genitourinary system consists of?
    reproductive and gastrointestinal systems
  74. 3 types of animal hair
    primary, secondary, tactile
  75. list four functions of sebum
    • lubricates skin/hair, 
    • slows bacterial growth,
    • waterproofs coat,
    • anal glands, and sweat for cooling
  76. 5 ways heat can be lost from the body
    • radiation
    • conduction
    • evaporation
    • convection
    • urination/defication
  77. what does the mediastinum contain?
    heart thymus, esophagus, trachea, nerves, blood vessels, lymphtic vessels
  78. what are alveoli
    spongelike porous cells
  79. epiglottis
    lid like cartilage that closes and opens to protect lungs from inhaling food or liuquid
  80. the linnig of the thorax is called
    parietal pleura
  81. what is the normal heart rate for a dog and cat?and where on the body do you place your stephoscope to hear it?
    60/160 80/180 under the leg on the thigh or left side of chest
  82. what is the normal respiratioin rate for a cat and dog?
    • 20-30 rpm feline
    • 20-40 rpm canine
  83. what are the three main parts of the brain?
    forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain
  84. what makes up the CNS?
    brain and spinal cord
  85. what happens during flight or fight of the fight and flight response?
    release of endorphins, blood shunts to certain areas of body, digestion ceased. rectum restracts, glucose is released from musles, eyes dilate
  86. what are the two sections of ANS?
    sympthathetic and parasympathetic
  87. whats controls the fight or flight defence?
    the adrenal gland/ epinephrine
  88. what is the bbb?
    blood brain barrier, restricts entrance of certain nutritive and molecules into brain
  89. what makes up the PNS?
    Nerves and gangia located outside of brain and spinal cord including cranial and spinal and automatic nerves
  90. what are the two main types of neurons and what do they do
    • sensory(afferent ) messages to brain
    • motor (efferent) messages from the brain
  91. what is the purpose of CSF
    protects brain and spinal cord and provides some nurtients