CHEMISTRY F321 - Atoms, Bonds and Groups: 1.2 Atomic Structure
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State the relative mass and relative charge of a proton
- Relative mass: 1
- Relatrive charge: +1
State the relative mass and relative charge of a neutron
- Relative mass: 1
- Relative charge: 0
State the relative mass and relative charge of an electron
- Relative mass: 1/1840 (negligable or 0)
- Relative charge: -1
number of protons in an atom
number of protons PLUS neutrons
When atoms form ions...
they lose or gain (an) electron(s)
What charge does an ion have if it loses an electron?
What charge does an ion have if it gains an electron?
Number of electrons=?
Number of protons
Same number of protons, different number of neutrons
Relative Isotopic Mass
the mass of an atom of an isotope on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 has a mass of 12
Realative Atomic Mass (Ar)
The average mass of an atom of an element on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 has a mass of 12.
Ar is calculated using...
Relative Molecular Mass (Mr)
the average mass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 has a mass of 12
Relative Formula Mass
The average mass of a formula unit of a compound on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 has a mass of 12
1st Ionisation Energy
the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms
Give a general formula for 1st ionisation energy
X(g) -----> X(g)+ + e-
2nd (or 3rd, 4th 5th etc) Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove one mole of electrons from 1 mole of *state initial charge of ion e.g. singly..* positive ions in the gaseous state
List the 4 things to include in a question reating to ionisation energies/tables.
- 1. Big change in energy
- 2. Number of outer electrons
- 3.next electron in a shell closer to the nucleus
- 4. Stronger attractrion
- *Note: you can also mention less sheilding because there are less shells. This again, leads to stronger attraction.
How many electrons in the following:
a d orbital
the 4th energy level
How many orbitals in a d-subshell?
What does the Aufbau Principle state?
Electrons will fill the lowest available energy level first ('aufbau' means building up in German)
What does Hund's Rule say?
electrons will fill orbitals of the same energy singly before pairing up
List as far as possible the order in which the subshells are filled.
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 4f 5d 5f
Sate the electronic configuration of Na (it has 11 electrons)
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
State the electronic configuration for an oxygen ion (O2-)
1s2 2s2 2p6
Why do atoms become ions?
To gain the same electronic configuration as 'noble gases'
What would you like to do?
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