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2012-11-03 23:53:31
byzantine empire

west civ
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  1. Damascus
    • In 705, it was teh capital of a vast, expanding Muslim Empire
    • Great Mosque of Damascus
  2. Hippodrome
    • Where the games and chariot reaces that were the obsession ofthe city's population took place
    • also known as "the Circus"
  3. Justinian
    • Known as "the emperor who never slept"
    • wife was Theodora
    • In 532 checked the power of the Circus factions
    • restored for one last moment some of the geographic unity of the old empire
    • Justinian code was written and is the foundation for most of Europe's legal system
    • left the empire bankrupt
  4. Theodora
    Ambitious wife of Justinian
  5. Hagia Sophia
    • Church of the Holy Wisdom
    • one of the largest and most innovative churches ever constructed
  6. John of Cappadocia
    • as spectacular but not as well appreciated as Justinian
    • squeezed the empire's population for the taxes to pay for the conquests and reforms
  7. Tribonian
    • Justinian's brilliant jurist
    • he revised and organized the existing codes of Roman law into the Justinian Code
  8. Heraclius
    • emperor 610-641
    • turned back the tide and crushed the Sassanids
    • but it was too late...Islam had emerged in the deserts of Arabia
  9. Sassanids
    • East of the Byzantine Empire
    • In 602 Sassanid empire  captured Egypt, Palestine and Syria
  10. Irene
    • Ruled as Regent for her son Contantine VI
    • then when he came of age had him blinded and depposed of
  11. Basileus
  12. Themes
    • Byzantine empire devided into 25 provinces - known as themes
    • the soldiers were also farmers
  13. Stragegoi
    military commandors that governed the themes
  14. Orthodox Christianity
    the official "right-teaching" faith of Constantinople as opposed to the heterodox peoples on the margins of the Byzantine Empire.
  15. Cyril
    • Orthodox Christian missionary
    • sent by Michael III 
    • from Thessalonica
    • brother of Methodius
    • created a Slavonic alphabet that was used to translat the Scripture
  16. Methodius
    • Orthodox Christian missionary
    • sent by Michael III 
    • from Thessalonica
    • brother of Cyril
  17. Bulgars
    • an amalgam of south Slavic groups under the leadership of a Turkic elite
    • agreed to make Christianity the official religion when they needed help against the Serbians
  18. Icons
    religious images used in meditating in worship
  19. Iconoclasts
    Breakers of icons; opponents of the mediating use of icons (religious images) in worship.  Most emperors supported this faction in eighth- and early ninth-century Byzantium
  20. Iconodules
    Venrators of icons; the ecclesiastical faction that resisted the iconoclasts.  Most of the people and lesser clergy were iconodules
  21. Muhammad
    • united the tribes of the Arabin Peninsula and propelled them on an unprecedented mission of conquest
    • father of Islam
  22. Islam
    • means "submission to the will of God"
    • prophet Muhammad
  23. Bedouins
    • nomadic tribes that roamed the peninsula in search of pasturage for their flocks
    • desert dwellers
  24. Harams
    • sanctuary which often borders between tribal areas
    • set up as a  neutral ground with no violence
  25. Quraysh
    • became the leading commercial organization in norther Arabia
    • established Mecca as a haram
    • the tribe of Muhammad
  26. Qusayy
    • Muhammad was a descendent
    • established Mecca as a haram
    • muslim holy man
  27. Mecca
    • established as a haram
    • grew into an important center
  28. The Qur'an
    • Koran
    • the exact and complete revelation of God
  29. Hijra
    In early Islam, the journey undertaken by Muhammad from Mecca to Medina on 622 in order to govern Medina and calm its internal political dissension
  30. Umma
    The community of all believers in the Islamic faith.  Initially, it was both a political and religious supertribe of Arabs
  31. Jihads
    holy wars waged by Muslims against their religious enemies
  32. Caliph
    The successors of Muhammad who served as political and religious leaders of the Islamic world
  33. Abu Bakr
    • the successor of the prophet Muhammad
    • launched a war of reconversion to convert the followers of Muhammad that fell away after his death
  34. Khalid ibn al-Walid
    • the greatest of the early Islamic general
    • Abu Bakr's general, Muslim expansion covered all of Arabia
    • defeated tribe after tribe and brought them back into the Umma
    • used the desert to hide after attacking
  35. Haram al-Sharif
    Dome of the Rock
  36. 'Umar
    • under his command, Islam conquered Iran, Iraq, Syria and Egypt
    • divided the spoils of war between two groups:  the earliest followers of the Prophet and the conquerors themselves
  37. 'Uthman
    • successor of 'Umar
    • member of the Umayyad clan of Mecca
    • attempted to consolidate control over Islam by the Quraysh elite and began reducing the privilages of the early converts
    • was murdered while reading the Koran
  38. 'Ali
    • 4th Caliph
    • son-in-law and nephew of Muhammad
    • was suspected in the murder of 'Uthman
    • moved the caliphate from Arabia to Iraq
    • stressed equality among all believers
    • murdered by supporters of the Umayyad
  39. Shi'ites
    Muslims who follow the tradition that legitimate leadership of Islam can only come through the descendents of 'Ali, whom they regard as the last orthodox caliph
  40. Umayyad
    • established at Damascus a caliphate that lasted a century
    • ruled as secular leaders
    • attempted to unite the Islamic Empire through an appeal of Arab unity
    • they extended the Islamic Empire to its farthest reaches
  41. Tariq ibn Ziyad
    • Islamic general
    • crossed the Strait of Gibralter (Tariq's mountain)
    • conquered the entire penisula
  42. 'Abbasid
    • followers under the black banners of the descendants of Muhammad's paternal uncle 'Abbas
    • overthrew the Umayyads
    • attempted to govern according to religious principles
  43. Sunnis
    The majority tradition of Islam that accepts that political succession should be based on consensus, the existing political order, and a leader's merit.
  44. 'Ubayd Allah the Fatimid
    • Shi'ite
    • launched revolts against the Sunnis
    • supported by North African Berbers
    • declared himself caliph
    • established Cairo as the capital of the caliphate
  45. Omar Khayyam
    • Muslim mathmetician
    • developed mathematical concepts not surpassed until the 19th century
  46. Moses Maimonides
    • Jewish physician
    • wrote texts in Arabic and Hebrew on Jewish law
    • wrote the Guide to the Perplexed
    • attempted to reconcile Aristotlian and Neoplatonic philosophy to Scripture
  47. Emir
    local military commanders who took control of provincial administration in the Islamic world at the expense  of the caliphs by the 10th century
  48. Robert Guiscard
    Norman commander conquered Byzantine Bari and southern Italy
  49. Manzikert
    • the place that Emperor Romanus IV was defeated by the Seljuk Turks
    • this defeat sealed the fate of teh empire
  50. The Crusades
    Western Christians led expeditions
  51. Chingis Khan
    • Mongol prince 
    • known as Temujin or Genghis Khan
    • Universal Ruler
    • led his conquering army into Persia from central Asia
  52. The Ottoman Empire
    •  after the Mongol empire they began to expand at the expense of both the byzantine and the Mongol-Seljuk empires
    • Conquered Constantinople