PSY 240 CH 9-11

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Author:
blueclues
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181393
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PSY 240 CH 9-11
Updated:
2012-11-05 00:11:14
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10 11
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CH 9, 10, 11
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  1. Compare multilple groups by using a ___-___ design
    multiple-group
  2. More than two ___ ___ are needed to accurately compare multiple effects
    data points
  3. We need to see the full shape of the graph in order to determine the ___ ___
    Functional Relationship
  4. A manipulation's construct validity is weakened by ___ variables
    Confounding
  5. A group that recieves no treatment - not even a placebo
    empty control group
  6. a treatment that has no effect
    placebo
  7. When group means are further apart, there is greater ___
    variability
  8. ANOVA
    Analysis of Variance
  9. Allows us to compare between-groups variance to with-groups variance
    ANOVA
  10. the ratio of the between-groups variance to the within-groups variance
    F ratio
  11. Our environment varies in ___ and to ___ ___ a variable is present
    whether and to what degree
  12. level of a variable
    data point
  13. Finding the functional relationship requires ___ more than 2 data points
    mapping
  14. To make accurate statements regarding effects we need to know the ___ ___ of the IVs and DVs
    functional relationship
  15. Multilevel experiments means greater ___ and ___ due to ___ ___
    external and construct

    random selection
  16. variables are ___ confounded
    frequency
  17. ___ ___ experiments are stronger than the simple experiment
    multiple group
  18. in Multiple Group experiments, ___ validity is improved and we are able to map ___ relationships
    construct

    functional
  19. Determine the ___ we will use BEFORE the type of Design
    analysis
  20. Type of analysis used will influence (3)
    treatments

    # of participants

    hypothesis
  21. To find a treatment effect, we look for ___
    variability
  22. difference among group means
    variability
  23. A ___ difference between means is most likely due to chance
    small
  24. A ___ difference between means is likely due to the effect of the treatment
    large
  25. Within-group variability is NOT due to ___
    Treatment
  26. Within-group variability is due to ___ ___
    Random Error
  27. Between-groups variability is due to ___ and ___ ___
    Treatment and Random Error
  28. the effects of random error
    within-group variability
  29. the effects of random error plus any treatment effects
    between-group variability
  30. Effects of random error (3)
    individual differences

    unreliability of the measure

    poor standardization
  31. tells us the extent to which chance caused individual scores to differ from each other
    within-groups variability
  32. tells us the degree to which our groups actually vary from one another
    between-groups variability
  33. Two factors affect the extent to which group means differ
    random error

    treatment effect
  34. In an ___, we see any possible effects of individual IVs and ALSO any interaction effects between the variables
    ANOVA
  35. We can ask more refined questions in a ___ ___ experiment
    multiple group
  36. factors other than the treatment
    extraneous factors
  37. We can eliminate extraneous factors by using a ___-___ or the ___/___ design
    two-group

    pretest/posttest
  38. If groups differ before the treatment, differences in scores could be due to ___ ___ which threatens ___ validity
    selection bias

    internal
  39. By using ___, groups should have nearly identical characteristics
    matching
  40. groups are the same on the pretest, but develop at different rates
    selection by maturation interaction
  41. Average scores tend to become less extreme at the ___
    posttest
  42. tells us that extreme scores will revert back to more normal levels on retest
    regression toward the mean
  43. Groups may also end up being different due to ___ - when participants drop out of a study
    mortality
  44. use the same participants in the no-treatment group and the treatment group.  This approach uses the ___-___ design
    pretest/posttest
  45. Participants may change because of ___.  A change in a participant's environment has a ___ effect on their scores.
    History

    Systematic
  46. when participants become better at taking our test due to practice resulting in ___ ___
    testing effects
  47. changes in the measuring scale resulting in changes in scores
    instrumentation
  48. Any change in the cause must be reflected by change in the ___
    effect (outcome)
  49. Differences in the ___ variable must be reflected by a change in the ___ variable
    independent/ dependent
  50. changes in the ___ occured before changes in the ___
    treatment / activity
  51. Experimental design where everything is identical for both treatment groups, except that one group recieves the treatment

    Group scores are compared
    two-group design
  52. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - groups were different to begin with
    Selection
  53. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - groups were destined to grow in different ways
    selection by maturation interaction
  54. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - extreme pretest scores tend to normalize
    regression effects
  55. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - participants drop out
    mortality
  56. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - natural growth and development appear at treatment effects
    maturation
  57. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - changes in environment caused changes in participants
    history
  58. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - practice on the pretest caused changes in posttest scores
    Testing
  59. 8 Threats to internal validity

    - the questionnaire changed between pre- and posttest
    Instrumentation
  60. Arbitrary assignment to groups and when participants choose in which group they want to be.

    These individuals are different!!!
    selection bias
  61. Measurements are only as accurate as the ___
    tool we are using
  62. Using unreliable tools produces ___ ___
    random error
  63. Group's averages tend to become less extreme during the ___
    posttest
  64. scores that are extreme will revert back to more normal levels at the retest
    regression toward the mean
  65. Design used to determine: Why people behave the way they do and How we can help them behave differently
    Simple Experiment
  66. Design used to isolate underlying causes:

    Requires internal validity (cause and effect)
    Simple Experiment
  67. In a simple experiment, groups must NOT differ ___.

    One group will receive treatment and the other will not.
    Systematically
  68. In a simple experiment, treatments can involve different ___ and ___ of activity
    types / amounts
  69. To ensure that the treatment is the only difference between groups of a simple experiment, we use ___ ___
    random assignment
  70. In a simple experiment, we test the experimental hypothesis against the ___ ___
    null hypothesis
  71. Hypothesis that states that the treatment WILL HAVE an effect
    experimental hypothesis
  72. Larger groups tend to be more ___, and effects will stand out better
    similar
  73. we need to know the scores of our Dependent variable to be able to calculate any ___ ___ of our Independent variable 
    significant effects
  74. If a difference is ___, we can be certain, beyond a reasonable doubt, that the difference is NOT due to ___
    Significant / Random Error
  75. With a ___ ___ error, we state that a difference between our groups was Significant when it was NOT
    Type 1
  76. With a ___ ___ error, we state that a difference between our groups was NOT significant, but due to Chance, when it actually WAS significant
    Type 2
  77. To avoid Type 2 errors
    Do Not set the significance level Too LOW
  78. We need enough ___ to detect true Differences
    power
  79. Participants who are similar
    homogenous
  80. ___ limits random error from disguising our treatment effect
    power
  81. Power -

    Increase the ___ of our treatment effect
    size
  82. We use the ___ ___ to see whether the difference between Mean group Averages is big enough NOT to be due to random error.
    t-test

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