Patho 3

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Author:
cgordon05
ID:
18140
Filename:
Patho 3
Updated:
2010-05-06 21:43:09
Tags:
Brain disorders
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Description:
Brain disorders
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  1. What is the master molecule of addiction associated with reward and reinforcement system?
    • Dopamine
    • Reward = dopamine surge --> pleasurable sensation --> addiction (need for pleasure/fix)
  2. Glutamate is the precursor to GABA (gamma aminobutyrate acid).
    Would increased GABA decrease or increase anxiety?
    • increased GABA = decreased anxiety
    • ex. drugs, meditation, yoga
  3. What is the effect of mania in bipolar disorder on mood, activity, sleep, risk-taking, speech?
    • mood elevated, expansive, irritable (mania, hypomania)
    • hyperactivity, pressured speech
    • racing thoughts, flight of ideas, grandiosity
    • decreased need for sleep, distractibility
    • excess involvement in potentially dangerous activity
    • psychotic s/s - delusions, hallucinations
    • marked impairment in mania
  4. Neurotransmitters associated with panic disorders and where they originate: Serotonin
    Serotonin - raphe nuclei of brain stem
  5. Neurotransmitters associated with panic disorders and where they originate: Norepinephrine
    • Norepinephrine -
    • = locus cereuleus in brain stem
    • = burst of norepinephrine in anxiety
  6. Neurotransmitters associated with panic disorders and where they originate: Dopamine
    • Dopamine -
    • = substantia nigra and ventral tegmental areas of midbrain
  7. Neurotransmitters associated with panic disorders and where they originate: CRH
    CRH - hypothalamus
  8. Neurotransmitters associated with panic disorders and where they originate: ACTH
    ACTH - pituitary
  9. Neurotransmitters associated with panic disorders and where they originate: Glucocorticoids
    Glucocorticoids - pituitary
  10. PET scan
    • cerebral blood flow and uptake of glucose (cerebral metabolism)
    • glucose concentration = 60%
    • schizophrenia
  11. CT/MRI
    • structural assessment
    • stroke, AVM
  12. What does kindling mean in terms of depressive episodes?
    • Kindling = constant sense of threat
    • exposure to high cortisol levels over time increases sensitivity of thalamus to stimuli of psychologically threatening nature
    • person becomes highly reactive to environmental stimuli
  13. Addictive behavior involves what part of the brain and pathway of reward?
    • activation of medial forebrain bundle
    • brainstem (ventral tegmental area)
    • lateral hypothalamus --> nucleus accumbens --> frontal lobe (prefrontal cortex)
    • dopamine = primary neurotransmitter involved
  14. Pathway of reward
    • pathological attachment to a substance
    • goal = brain reward and reinforcement
    • faster a drug enters the brain, the more reinforcing it is
    • drugs = imitate actions of a neurotransmitter or increase actions

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