Chapter 5 ap

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Author:
rpm2d
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181419
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Chapter 5 ap
Updated:
2012-11-03 16:03:21
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blood basics
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blood basics
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  1. what are three general function of blood
    • transport
    • regulation
    • protection
  2. blood is a connective tissue that makes
    7-9% of the body weight
  3. plasma
    • liquid portion of blood
    • 91% water
  4. blood is composed of
    • 55% plasma
    • 45% formed elements(blood cells)
  5. plasma proteins include
    • albumin
    • fibrinogen
    • globulins
  6. albumin is important in
    capillary exchange
  7. fibrinogen
    blood clotting
  8. globulins
    used to make antibodies
  9. three types of blood cells
    • red (erythrocytes)
    • white(leukocytes)
    • platelets(thrombocytes)
  10. where is blood produced in the human body
    red bone marrow
  11. function of red blood cells
    transport of oxygen
  12. what is the molecule in red blood cells that binds with oxygen
    hemoglobin
  13. what is the life span of red blood cells
    120 days
  14. hemolysis
    old worn out rbc are removed by phagocytic cells
  15. what two organs perform hemolysis
    • liver
    • spleen
  16. what is the hormone secreted by kidneys, in response to decreased blood oxygen, that stimulates the production of red blood cells
    erythropoietin
  17. two primary functions of white blood cells
    • to protect the body by destroying pathogens
    • to remove foreign material and cellular debris
  18. pathogens
    disease producing microorganism
  19. the three types of granulocyte white blood cells
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
  20. neutrophils
    • make up  54-62% of total wbc
    • increased with bacterial infection
  21. basophils
    screte histamine and heparin
  22. esinoophils
    increased with parasitic infection
  23. what are the two types of agranulocyte
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  24. lympocytes
    key role in specific immunity
  25. monocytes
    increased with viral infections and chronic infections
  26. what two wbc account for the majority of the wbc
    • neutrphils(54-62%)
    • lymphcytes(25-38%)
  27. phagocytosis
    process by which wbc destroy pathogens
  28. what two circulating wbc engage in phagocytosis
    • neutrophils
    • monocytes
  29. monocytes
    enlarge and mature in to macrophages
  30. blood clotting is called
    coagulation
  31. hemostasis
    process that prevents blood loss
  32. the three events of hemostasis
    • blood vessel spasm
    • formation of a platelet plug
    • blood clotting
  33. what is the term that describes the process that results in the clumping of red blood cells and anitbodies
    agglutination
  34. universal donor
    type o blood
  35. universal recipient
    type ab blood
  36. three groups of blood disorders
    • anemia
    • leukemia
    • clotting disorders
  37. anemia
    low level of red blood cells or hemoglobin
  38. leukemia
    cancer that infects the wbc producing tissue
  39. myelogenic leukemia
    cancer of the bone marrow
  40. lymphocytic leukemia
    cancer  of the lymphoid tissue
  41. what is the most common clotting disorder
    thrombocytopenia
  42. red blood count
    • hematocrit
    • below normal:anemia
    • above normal:polycythemia
  43. white blood count
    • below normal:leukopenia
    • above normal:leukocytosis
  44. platelet count
    • below normal:thrombocytopenia
    • above normal:thrombocytosis
  45. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  46. pH
    unit of measurement that indicates the number of hydrogen ions in a solution
  47. the blood plasma has a pH ranging from
    7.35 to 7.45 with an average of 7.4
  48. blood plasma pH of less than 7.35
    acidosis
  49. blood plasma pH more than 7.45
    alkalosis
  50. what are the three mechanism used by the body to regulate acid base balance
    • buffer systems
    • respiration
    • kidneys
  51. vital capacity test
    • measures the air flow function of the lungs
    • monitor patients with COPD

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