Physiology

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ecav
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18142
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Physiology
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2010-06-15 16:43:48
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Physiology
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National Board Part One
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  1. LAWS
    • Bell Magende
    • Boyle
    • Charles
    • Henry
    • LaPlace
    • Starling
    • Hering Breuer
  2. Bell Megende
    anterior spinal roots are MOTOR, posterior SENSORY
  3. Boyle
    at constant temperature, a volume of gas varies inversely with pressure
  4. Charles
    At constant pressure, a volume of gas varies directly with absolute pressure
  5. Henry
    solubility of gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas
  6. LaPlace
    ventricular pressure depends on muscular tension, size and shape of the heart
  7. Starling
    Cardiac output is directly proportional to diastolic filling
  8. Hering Breuer
    limits respiratory excursion via the vagus nerve
  9. Carbon dioxide transport in the blood
    Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell and into the capillary where is is transported 3 ways:
  10. Carbon dioxide transport in the blood

    1 of 3
    1. dissolved carbon dioxide in the blood 7%
  11. Carbon dioxide transport in the blood

    2 of 3
    2. in combination with hemoglobin 23%
  12. Carbon dioxide transport in the blood

    3 of 3
    3. as bicarbonate ions (HCO3) 70%
  13. Carbon dioxide transport in the blood

    Bicarbonate
    formed when carbon dioxide enters the red blood cell and combines with water via CARBONIC ANHYDRASE to form CARBONIC ACID which dissociates into HYDROGEN AND HCO3 ions. the HCO3 diffuses out of the RBC into plasma while CL ions diffuse into the RBC (chloride shift)
  14. Carbon dioxide transport in the blood

    Bicarbonate
    • Carbonic Anhydrase --> CO2 + RBC = Carbonic Acid
    • Carbonic Acid splits --> H + HCO3
    • HCO3 out of RBC into Plasma
    • Chloride into RBC
  15. Oxygen
    97% is carried by hemoglobin 20ml O2 per 100 ml of blood
  16. Nerve endings
    • Krause
    • Ruffini
    • Meissner
    • Pacinian
    • Merkel's
    • Free nerve endings
  17. Krause
    cold
  18. Ruffini
    hot
  19. Meissner
    touch and pressure
  20. Pacinian
    touch
  21. Merkel's
    touch
  22. Free nerve endings
    pain
  23. Lung volumes and capacities
    • Tidal volume (TV)
    • Inspiratory reserve (IR)
    • Expiratory reserve (ER)
    • Residual volume (RV)
    • Inspiratory capacity
    • Functional residual capacity
    • Vital capacity
    • Total Lung volume
  24. Tidal volume (TV)
    • normal breathing
    • 500ml
  25. Inspiratory reserve (IR)
    3000ml
  26. Expiratory reserve (ER)
    1100ml
  27. Residual volume (RV)
    1200ml
  28. Inspiratory capacity
    TV+IR= 3500ml

    • TV=500ml
    • IR=3000ml
  29. Functional residual capacity
    ER+RV= 2300ml

    • ER= 1100ml
    • RV= 1200ml
  30. Vital capacity
    IR+ER+TV=4600ml

    • IR=3000ml
    • ER=1100ml
    • TV=500ml
  31. Total Lung
    5800ml
  32. Respiratory Centers
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Pons
  33. Medulla oblongata
    Has inspiratory and expiatory control centers
  34. Pons
    APNEUSTIC center and PNEUMOTAXIC center. Limits the duration of inspiration, but increases respiratory rate.
  35. Chemical control of Respiration
    Chemoreceptors in Medulla Oblongata excited by CO2 and H and peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies which are sensitive to PO2.
  36. Respiration (stimulation)
    • increase in PCO2 and H
    • decrease in PO2
  37. Respiration (inhibited)
    • decrease in PCO2 and H
    • increase in PO2
  38. Metabolic Acidosis
    • (diabetes mellitus)
    • Increase in ketone bodies, respiration stimulated (Kussmaul's breathing) causing a "blow off" of CO2 decreasing H concentration.
  39. Metabolic Alkalosis
    • (vomiting)
    • H concentration decreased, respiration inhibited, caused increase in PCO2, increases blood H concentration.
  40. Hyperventilation
    causes RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS: because decreased H concentration, low PCO2. Rebreathing expired air increased PCO2 returns blood Ph normal.
  41. Respiratory acidosis
    Low Ph of blood due to HYPOVENTILATION
  42. Hormones

    Posterior pituitary
    Neurohypophysis. Neuroectoderm connected to the base of the brain via supraoptic hypophyseal tract
  43. Hormones

    Posterior pituitary (ADH)
    Vasopressin acts upon the kidney to reabsorb water in the collecting duct. Increases blood pressure. Decreased ADH produced POLYDYPSIA and POLYURIA seen in DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
  44. Hormones

    Posterior pituitary (Oxytocin)
    Responsible for milk let down and uterine contractions during labor and after birth.
  45. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary
    "Rathke's Pouch" Influenced by negative feedback or releasing factors produced in the hypothalamus.
  46. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary (GH)
    • Somatotrophin: Stimulated by growth hormone releasing factor from the hypothalamus.
    • GHRF: responsible for stimulating the release of growth hormone and the release of an inhibitory hormone called somatostatin--> decreased produces dwarfism, increase produces giantism.
  47. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(ACTH)
    Corticotropin: stimulates the adrenal gland
  48. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(TSH)
    Thyrotropin: stimulates thyroid
  49. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(FSH)
    • stimulates follicle in preparation for ovulation in females
    • stimulates sperm production in males
  50. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(LH)
    • Responsible for ovulation in females
    • Regulates testosterone production
  51. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Prolactin)
    Stimulates milk production post partum
  52. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Pars intermedia)
    melanocyte stimulating hormone
  53. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Thyroid)

    Calcitonin
    takes calcium out of blood and into bone. made by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid.
  54. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Thyroid)

    Thyroxine
    Major hormone from the thyroid to regulate metabolism
  55. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Thyroid)

    Triiodothyronine
    Chemically more active than thyroxine. important in maintaining basal metabolism
  56. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Thyroid)

    decreased and increased
    • Decreased thyroid hormones produce a cretin in children or myxedema in adults.
    • Increase produces increased metabolic processes, increased sympathetics and may lead to Graves disease.
  57. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Parathyroid)
    increases blood calcium, decreases reabsorption of phosphates
  58. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Parathormone)
    Takes calcium out of the bone and into the blood stream. Important in many enzyme reaction and for contraction of muscles. Decrease produces tetany or muscle twitches. Increase seen in Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica. Increase in the blood produce increases in the kidney.
  59. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Adrenal cortex)
    • Zona Glomerulosa
    • Zona Fasciculata
    • Zona Reticularis
  60. Zona Glomerulosa
    Aldosterone (salt)
  61. Zona Fasciculata
    Cortisol (sugar)
  62. Zona Reticularis
    Androgen (sex)
  63. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Aldosterone)
    A mineralcorticoids that reduces sodium excretion by the kidneys and increases potassium excretion
  64. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Cortisol)
    A glucocorticoids that controls metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
  65. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Adrenal medulla)
    Medulla is derived from neural crest cells. Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Acts as postganglionic sympathetic nervous system

    Epinephrine and norepinephrine both secreted in response to sympathetic stimulation
  66. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Somatostain)
    Made in hypothalamus to inhibit growth hormone. Made by delta cells of the pancrease to inhibit insulin and gulcagon in the pancrease, gastrin in the gastric mucosa, secretin in the intestinal mucosa and renin in the kidneys.
  67. Hormones

    Anterior Pituitary(Somatomedin)
    A peptide formed in the liver and other tissues which mediates the effects of growth hormone on cartilage
  68. Hormones

    Ovaries (Estrogen)
    Produced by ovarian follicle after stimulation by FSH. Thickens the lining of the uterus in the proliferative phage of the menstrual cycle (1st stage).
  69. Hormones

    Ovaries (Progesterone)
    Produced by the corpus luteum after ovulation. Increases thickness of the uterine lining to make it ready for implantation. Increases in (2nd stage) of the menstral cycle called Secretory stage. Also responsible for increase in body temperature called Thermogenic Hormone.
  70. Hormones

    Testosterone
    produced in intersitital cells of Leydig in testes
  71. Hormones

    Pancreas (Insulin)
    Secreted by the beta cells in response to glucose
  72. Hormones

    Pancreas (Glucagon)
    Responsible for increasing blood sugar
  73. Digestion

    Myenteric plexus
    Auerbach's plexus. in muscular layer of digestive tract for GI mobility
  74. Digestion

    Meissner's plexus
    In the submucosa to promote secretions
  75. Digestion

    Mouth
    Ptyalin
  76. Digestion

    Stomach (Chief cells)
    • Pepsinogen in the presence of HCL becomes pepsin.
    • Rennin clots milk
  77. Digestion

    Stomach (Parietal cells)
    Produce HCL and intrinsic factor
  78. Digestion

    Stomach (Gastrin)
    Helps with protein digestion
  79. Digestion

    Duodenum (Cholecystokinin)
    a hormone responsible for contraction of the gall bladder when fat is present.
  80. Digestion

    Duodenum (Secretin)
    stimulates the flow of pancreatic juice and decreases gastric motility
  81. Digestion

    Pancrease
    lipase, amylase, maltase
  82. Digestion

    Pancreas (Trypsinogen)
    • activated by enterokinase in intestine
    • Trypsin and chymotrypsin split protein
  83. Cardiac Conduction System

    SA node
    Pacemaker. Self excitatory to the internodal pathways to the AV node (delays impulse) the to the AV bundle (of His) to the Purkinje system which conducts the impulse to the ventricles.
  84. Cardiac Conduction System

    P wave
    atrial depolarization
  85. Cardiac Conduction System

    QRS wave
    ventricular depolarization (atrial repolarization)
  86. Cardiac Conduction System

    T wave
    ventricular repolarization
  87. Diastole
    period of relaxation
  88. Systole
    produces contraction
  89. First heart sound
    closure of AV valves during isometric contraction
  90. Second heart sound
    closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves during isometric relaxation at the beginning of diastole
  91. Dicrotic notch
    the small downward deflection on the arterial pulse or pressure contour, immediately following the closure of the semilunar valves sometimes used as a marker for the end of systole or ejection period S-T
  92. Starling's Law
    Cardiac output is directly proportional to diastolic filling
  93. Baroreceptors
    In the carotid and aortic arches, respond to changes in blood pressure
  94. ARMS and PRTS
    occurs in diastole

    • A. aortic
    • R. regurgitation
    • M. mitral
    • S. stenosis

    • P. pulmonic
    • R. regurgitation
    • T. tricuspid
    • S. stenosis
  95. Muscle Physiology

    Relaxed muscle
    Calcium is stored in the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. the calcium in the sarcoplasm is low, the ATP is attached to the myosin crossbridges (this prevents the combining of actin and myosin).
  96. The Nerve Impulse Fires

    This causes:
    calcium to be released at the myoneural junction which causes ACETYLCHOLINE release to the T tubules
  97. Contraction of muscle

    (After T tubules) This causes:
    SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM to release CALCIUM. CALCIUM activates MYOSIN. MYOSIN breaks ATP to ADP plus P.
  98. Contraction of muscle

    (After ATP to ADP plus P)
    CALCIUM binds with TROPOMYOSIN, TROPONIN leaving ACTIN free. ACTIN and MYOSIN combine. ACTINOMYOSIN reacts producing a contraction.
  99. Relaxation of muscle
    CHOLINESTERASE destroys ACETYLCHOLINE.

    Calcium goes back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the myosin becomes inactivated.
  100. Relaxation of muscle

    (After inactivation)
    • ADP goes back to ATP
    • ATP binds once again with MYOSIN
  101. Relaxation of muscle

    (After ATP binds with Myosin)
    Tropomyosin-troponin reattaches to actin and bridges separate to reform thus we have relaxation.
  102. Neurophysiology
    • Action Potential
    • Passive transport
    • Active transport
    • Absolute Refactory Period
    • Relative Refractory Period
    • Rheobase
    • Chronaxie
  103. Neurophysiology

    Action Potential
    • Inside the cell is K+ and Mg++
    • Outside the cell is Na+ and Cl-
    • Stimulation increases membrane permeability to sodium
  104. Neurophysiology

    Passive Depolarization
    • Na+ goes into the cell by diffusion creating a change in electronegativity.
    • K+ goes out of the cell
    • Cl- goes into the cell
    • Decrease membrane permeability to Na+, K and Cl
  105. Neurophysiology

    Active Transport
    • Sodium goes out of the cell
    • Potassium goes into the cell
    • Repolarization occurs due to increased potassium conductance.
    • Moves back to resting membrane potential.
    • Resting membrane potential: muscle -90MV and neuron -70MV
  106. Neurophysiology

    Absolute refractory period
    When a second action potential can not be elicited
  107. Neurophysiology

    Relative refractory period
    When a second action potential can be elicited, but must be greater stimulus than the first
  108. Neurophysiology

    rheobase
    minimum current strength for an action potential to occur
  109. Neurophysiology

    Chronaxie
    time needed using 2x the rheobase for excitation

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