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More focused on childhood relationships and adult conflicts.
1) Unconscious still plays a large role in life, although it may not be the ubiquitous influence Freud held it was.
2) Behavior often reflects compromises in conflicts between mental processes, such as emotions, motivations, and thoughts.
3) Childhood plays an important part in personality development, particularly in terms of shaping adult relationships.
4) Mental representations of the self and relationships guide our interactions with others.
5) Personality development involves not just regulating sexual and aggressive feelings but also moving from an immature, socially dependent way of relating to others to a mature, independent relationship style.
Western's 5 Postulates
One of the worlds experts on recovered memories.
Books by survivors encouraging others to follow their "intuition"
-Hypnosis does not improve memory-can increase distortions.
-Suggestive interviewing, interpretations of symptoms as signs of past trauma, pressure from authority to recall trauma, and dream interpretation.
A memory is elabortated upon through imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined events with events that actually happened.
Imagination Inflation Effect
The tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and to not look for evidence that might disconfirm their belief.
Information gets into our memories without our ever being aware of the information.
Something in the unconscoius motivates our behavior
Focused on identity- what makes us who we are
Ego Psychology, Erik Erikson founded this
-First years of life
-Relationships with parents/guardian
-Suspicious, estranged, isolated, social discomfort
Trust v. Mistrust
-Infants become mobile
-Do parents allow child to explore?
-Doubt in relationships, doubt in goals one sets
Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt
-Around 3 years
-Peers- organizing games, choosing leaders, forming goals
-Lack initiative in the future, resigned to failure
Initiative v. Guilt
-Around 4 years old
-Comparison to peers
-Feeling as if one does not have talent or ability to get ahead in life
Industry v. Inferiority
-Fail to have a sense of self and meaning in life; bounce between jobs, relationships goals, values.
Identity v. Role Confusion
-Friendship and romantic relationships
-Isolation and sense of loneliness
Intimacy v. Isolation
- Products of efforts that one cares about
-Phonies, "going through the motions"
Generativity v. Stagnation
-End of life
-Leaving generativity's roles
-Lots of regrets, bitter, contempt, irritable
Integrity v. Despair
If a person does not have a crisis, or if he or she forms an identity without exploring alternatives, such as accepting the values of parents.
Taking time to explore options before making a commitment to an identity.
Horney taught that the penis was a symbol of social power rather than an organ women actually desired.
Inflated self- admiration and constant attempts to draw attention to the self and to keep others focused on oneself
Emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood
Object Relations Theory
Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent.
Three attachment patterns in infants and adults.
Who did research on the wire monkey and cloth monkey?
Harlow and Zimmerman
Children experiencing separation anxiety react negatively to separation from their mother (or primary caregiver) becoming agitated and distressed when their mothers leave.
Children that avoided their mothers when she returned.
When the mother left the room the baby explores and even goes up to the stranger in the room.
Children were very anxious about their mothers' leaving. When the mother leaves the child is difficult to calm down.
Adults with _____ _____ style tend to have frequent, but short lived, romantic relationships.
Adults with ____ _____ style can be separated from their partners without stress.