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  1. How does HbS lead to sickling
    Charged amino acid to nonpolar amino acid -> hydrophobic pocket of beta to fit into alpha -> sickling.
  2. What is known to decrease risk of ovarian cancer
    decrease number of ovulations because means less repair that has to be done
  3. Follicular lymphoma
    • 14:18 Bcl2 overexpression
    • waxing and waning lymphadenopathy
  4. Idraparinux
    Direct Xa inhibitor -> increased PT and PTT
  5. FGF2
    Endothelium proliferation, migration and differentiation
  6. ARP
    (RR-1) / RR
  7. Autoimmune platelet destruction
    Ecchymosis, petechiae, and mucosal bleeding without signs of TTP/HUS, pancytopenia, marrow failure or splenomegaly
  8. CML
    9:22 -> BCR-ABL -> overactive tyrosine kinase
  9. MDR1
    ATP dependent efflxu pump in cancer for chemotherapeutics
  10. Fibronectin
    large glycoproteins that mediate between cell adhesion and migration
  11. Multiple myeloma
    AL amyloid -> renal failure
  12. Aplastic anemia
    pancytopenia and dry Bone marrow aspiration
  13. HER2
    185 KD transmembrane glycoprotein -> tyrosine kinase
  14. BRCA
    Tumor suppressor that is involved in gene repair and regulation of the cell cycle
  15. What deficiency is common in alcoholics early on
    Folic acid deficiency
  16. Hepicidin
    From the liver and regulates iron content on the intestinal epithelium
  17. Hemolytic Uremic syndrome
    • Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
    • Acute renal failure
    • Thrombocytopenia

    Caused by E. Coli and shigella
  18. Wiskott Aldrich

    • Eczema
    • recurrent capsular infections
    • thrombocytopenia
  19. Chloramphenicol
    binds 50 sribosome and inhbits peptidyltransferase

    Causes Aplastic anemia upon withdrawal
  20. T cell ALL structure issue
    can increase mediastinum mass ->

    • SVC syndrome
    • dysphagia
    • dyspnea
    • stridor
  21. INcreased MCHC
    • membrane problem (hereditary spherocytosis)
    • Red cell dehydration
  22. Bcl2
    is a protooncogene
  23. Factor V Leiden mutation Diagnosis
    • no increase in PTT when protein C added
    • -> DVT and PE
  24. HER2
    185 kD transmembrane glycoprotein -> tyrosine kinase -> epithelial growth and proliferation
  25. Hemophilia A or B (inheritance)
  26. x linked disease
  27. reticulocyte staining
    Have rRNA so they stain blue on Wright Giemsa stain
  28. Enfurvitide (mechanism)
    targets gp41 -> fusion inhibitor of the membranes
  29. Kaposi's Sarcoma
    • Mesenchymal origin
    • Blue-red skin plaques on the extremities and mucus membranes
    • HHV 8 and associated with HIV
  30. pilocytic astrocytoma
    • Located mostly in cerebellum
    • Lesions are solid and cystic
  31. Aplastic anemia
    • pancytopenia
    • dry bone marrow biospy
  32. Treatment of a patient that presents with
    Painful abdomen
    Red wine-colored urine
    Psychological disturbances
    No cutatenous photosensitivity

    After taking a barbiturate
    • This is acute intermittent porphyria
    • Defect in Porphobilinogen deaminase
    • Treatment: glucose and heme (inhibit ALA synthase)
  33. Hemochromatosis and HFE gene
    Unregulated iron uptake in the intestine -> liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma
  34. Seborrheic Keratosis
    • Benign epidermal tumor that is tan brown flat and greasy
    • Looks like stick on
  35. A1AT deficiency
    decrease in FVC -> panacincar in the lower lobes
  36. Wilsons Disease presentation
    • ¬†Ataxia/ dysarthria
    • increased transaminases
  37. Late presentation of hemochromatosis in females
    Physiologic loss of iron through menstruation -> not shown until after menopasue
  38. LTc4 D4 E4
    • Leukotrienes ->
    • vasoconstriciton, bronchospasm, and increased vascular permeability
  39. Liver appearance in sarcoidosis
    Scattered noncaseating granulomas
  40. Psoriasis
    Salmon colored lesions on elbows, knees, gluteal cleft, penis, scalp

    Hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, rete ridge elongation, mitotic activity above basal layer, decrease in stratum granulosum
  41. Halothane in hepatoxicity
    • increase aminotransferase level
    • increase PT, leukocytosis
    • eosinophilia
  42. Peau d'orange -
    neoplastic cells that block dermal lymphatics
  43. Vitamin A deficiency in cystic fibrosis
    Vitamin A responsible for differentiation of specialized epithelia -> pancreas squamos epithelia metaplasia in cystic fibrosis
  44. Aortic valve in 75 yoa with calcification
    Dystrophic calcification = cell injury and necrosis
  45. Gallstones in pregnancy
    • estrogen increase cholesterol secretion
    • progesterone -> gallbladder hypomobility
  46. Sarcoidosis stages
    • I- B/L hilar lymphadenopathy
    • II- B/L hilar lympadenopathy + pulmonary infiltrates
    • III- pulmonary infiltrates
    • IV- fibrosis
  47. VZV histo
    intranuclear inclusions in keratinocytes and multinucleated giant cells
  48. Cavernous hemangiomas
    benign liver tumor
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