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Seggregation of Alleles
Each organism inherits two versions of every gene called alleles, one from each parent. These two alleles are found on separate chromosomes and separate from each other when gametes are formed during meiosis, with one allele ending up in each gamete.
This increases genetic variation as half the gametes get one version of the gene and half get the other version. This means the offspring produced from each type of gamete will be genetically different.
During meiosis the many pairs of homologous chromosomes line up on the equator. The chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of the nucleus by spindle fibres and move up in different gametes.
Each homologous pair seperate independently from one another when gametes are formed, creating a huge variety of combinations in the gametes and increasing genetic variation.
When the homologous chromosomes pair up on the equator during meiosis, sections of genetic material can be exchanged between the inner chromatids of the chromosomes. Resulting in a reshuffling of alleles (recombination).
Increases genetic variation by creating new combinations of alleles not found in the parents.