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what are the 7 functions of blood
- Transport of gases, nutrients and waste products; e.g. oxygen
- Transport of processed molecules; e.g., precursor of vitamin D from skin to liver then kidneys
- Transport of regulatory molecules; e.g., hormones
- Regulation of pH (normal pH of most body tissues between 7.35 and 7.45)
- Maintenance of body temperature; e.g., warm blood shunted to the interior of the body
- Protection against foreign substances; e.g., antibodies
- Clot formation
the liquid part of blood is called
a liquid containing substances suspended that do not settle out of sollution is known as a
plasma is what percentage water?
other than water what else is plasma made of? (6)
- waste products
- regulatory substances
what are the three protiens in the blood
what are some charactoristics of albumins?
viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, thyroid hormones
which blood protien transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, ions, and antibodies
which blood protien is involved in clotting?
blood plasma without fibrinogen or other clotting factors (i.e., whole blood minus both the cells and the clotting factors).
involved in osmosis, membrane potentials, and acid-base balance
glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, vitamins
Waste Products of plasma:
- Urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia salts. Breakdown products of protein metabolism
- Bilirubin. Breakdown product of RBCs
- Lactic acid End product of anaerobic respiration
Gases of plasma: oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert nitrogen
oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert nitrogen
Regulatory substances of plasma :
Biconcave discs, anucleate, contain hemoglobin; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
what are the formed elements of blood (5)
- red blood cells (erythrocytes)
- white blood cells (leukocytes)
- platelets (thrombocytes)
what are the 2 types of white blood cells
- Granulocytes: cytoplasm contains large granules; have multi-lobed nuclei. Three distinctive types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
- Agranulocytes: cytoplasm contains small granules and nuclei that are not lobed. Two distinctive types: lymphocytes and monocytes
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis is what?
Process of blood cell production
All formed elements derived from single population
Proerythroblasts develop into what?
myeloblasts develop into what?
Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
lymphoblasts develop into?
monoblasts develop into
Megakaryoblasts develop into ?
when oxygen is brought from lungs to tissue 98.5 % is attached to?
1.5% is dissolved in?
when CO2 is brought from tissues to the lungs:
what percent is dissolved in plasma?
what percent is in combination with hemoglobin?
what percent is transported as bicarbonate ions produced as a result of combination of H2O and CO2 because of enzyme carbonic anhydrase found within RBCs?
what type of bond does hemoglobin for with oxygen
unstable, reversible bond
3 types of hemoblobin?
- Oxyhemoglobin: oxygen-loaded
- Deoxyhemoglobin: oxygen-unloaded
- Carbaminohemoglobin: carbon dioxide binds to hemoglobin
Four globin molecules (polypeptide chains):
Transport carbon dioxide and nitric oxide. NO brought from lungs to tissues, induces smooth muscles to relax, lowering BP.
Four heme molecules, each containing one iron atom:
required for oxygen transport. Iron absorbed in upper small intestine; absorption increased by stomach acid and vitamin C. Iron lost in urine, feces, menstrual fluid.
Mature RBCs last 120 days in circulation
hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels.
are RBC's found in higher concentrations in males or females?
what effect does estrogen have on erythropoieses?
what effect does testosterone have on erythropoetin?
what is the function of white blood cells?
Protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris
- After leaving bone marrow, stay in circulation 10-12 hours then move into other tissues.
- Become motile, phagocytize bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes and other foreign matter. Secrete lysozyme.
- Last 1-2 days.
- Most numerous
- Leave circulation and enter tissues during inflammatory response.
- Prevalent in allergic reactions.
- Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine.
- Release chemicals that help destroy tapeworms, flukes,
- pinworms, and hookworms
- Leave circulation and migrate through tissues, play a role in both inflammatory response and allergic reactions.
- Produce histamine and heparin.
- Least common.
- Produced in red bone marrow but then migrate to lymphatic tissues and proliferate.
- Responsible for antibody production.
- Remain in circulation for 3 days, leave circulation and become macrophages.
- Phagocytic cells.
- Can break down antigens and present them to lymphocytes for recognition
- Cell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in red bone marrow
- Important in preventing blood loss
- Platelet plugs
- Promoting formation and contraction of clots
what is the arrest of blood?
what are three events that prevent excessive blood loss?
- Vascula spasm: Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessels. Can occlude small vessels.
- Platelet plug formation
- Coagulation or blood clotting
3 stages of coagulation
- 1.Activation of prothrombinase
- 2.Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
- 3.Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
- Proteins found in plasma.
- Circulate in inactive state until tissues are injured.
- Damaged tissues and platelets produce chemicals that begin activation of the factors.
A network of threadlike fibrin fibers, trapped blood cells, platelets and fluid
transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another
introduction of fluid other than blood
what is blood type determined by?
antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs
Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in?
agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs
two groups for blood typing?
ABO and Rh
Functions of the Heart (4)
- Generating blood pressure
- Routing blood: separates pulmonary and systemic circulations
- Ensuring one-way blood flow: valves
- Regulating blood supply
- Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic needs
the human heart is the size of what?
a closed fist
what is the apex of the heart
blunt rounded point of the cone
what is the base of the heart
flat part opposite the cone
where is the heart located?
Located in thoracic cavity in mediastinum (central core of the thoracic cavity;everything in the thoracic cavity except the lungs)
tough fibrous outer layer. Prevents over distention; acts as anchor
thin, transparent, inner layer. Simple squamous epithelium
lines the fibrous outer layer
Visceral pericardium (epicardium):
covers heart surface
what are the three layers of heart wall tissue?
- Epicardium: Serous membrane; smooth outer surface of heart
- Myocardium: Middle layer composed of cardiac muscle cell and responsibility for heart contracting
- Endocardium: Smooth inner surface of heart chambers
muscular ridges in auricles and right atrial wall
muscular ridges and columns on inside walls of ventricles