AnP2 blood/heart

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sjmjr
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AnP2 blood/heart
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2012-11-04 23:59:45
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AnP2 blood heart
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AnP2 blood/heart
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  1. what are the 7 functions of blood
    • Transport of gases, nutrients and waste products; e.g. oxygen
    • Transport of processed molecules; e.g., precursor of vitamin D from skin to liver then kidneys
    • Transport of regulatory molecules; e.g., hormones
    • Regulation of pH (normal pH of most body tissues between 7.35 and 7.45)
    • Maintenance of body temperature; e.g., warm blood shunted to the interior of the body
    • Protection against foreign substances; e.g., antibodies
    • Clot formation
  2. the liquid part of blood is called 
    plasma
  3. a liquid containing substances suspended that do not settle out of sollution is known as a 
    colloid
  4. plasma is what percentage water?
    91%
  5. other than water what else is plasma made of? (6)
    • protiens
    • ions 
    • nutrients 
    • waste products
    • gases
    • regulatory substances
  6. what are the three protiens in the blood 
    • albumins
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen
  7. what are some charactoristics of albumins?
    viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, thyroid hormones
  8. which blood protien transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, ions, and antibodies
    Globulins
  9. which blood protien is involved in clotting?
    fibrinogen
  10. Blood serum: 
    blood plasma without fibrinogen or other clotting factors (i.e., whole blood minus both the cells and the clotting factors).
  11. Ions: 
    involved in osmosis, membrane potentials, and acid-base balance
  12. Nutrients: 
    glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, vitamins
  13. Waste Products of plasma:
    • Urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia salts. Breakdown products of protein metabolism
    • Bilirubin. Breakdown product of RBCs
    • Lactic acid End product of anaerobic respiration
  14. Gases of plasma: oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert nitrogen
    oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert nitrogen
  15. Regulatory substances of plasma :
    hormones, enzymes
  16. Biconcave discs, anucleate, contain hemoglobin; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
  17. what are the formed elements of blood (5)
    • red blood cells (erythrocytes)
    • white blood cells (leukocytes)
    • granulocytes
    • agranulocytes
    • platelets (thrombocytes)
  18. what are the 2 types of white blood cells
    • Granulocytes: cytoplasm contains large granules; have multi-lobed nuclei. Three distinctive types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
    • Agranulocytes: cytoplasm contains small granules and nuclei that are not lobed. Two distinctive types: lymphocytes and monocytes
  19. Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis is what?
    Process of blood cell production
  20. STEM CELLS:
    All formed elements derived from single population
  21. Proerythroblasts develop into what?
    RBC's
  22. myeloblasts develop into what?
    Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
  23. lymphoblasts develop into?
    lymphocytes
  24. monoblasts develop into 
    monocytes
  25. Megakaryoblasts develop into ?
    platelets
  26. when oxygen is brought from lungs to tissue 98.5 % is attached to?
    1.5% is dissolved in?
    • hemoglobin
    • plasma
  27. when CO2 is brought from tissues to the lungs:
    what percent is dissolved in plasma?
    what percent is in combination with hemoglobin?
    what percent is transported as bicarbonate ions produced as a result of combination of H2O and CO2 because of enzyme carbonic anhydrase found within RBCs?
    • 7%
    • 23%
    • 70%
  28. what type of bond does hemoglobin for with oxygen
    unstable, reversible bond
  29. 3 types of hemoblobin?
    • Oxyhemoglobin: oxygen-loaded
    • Deoxyhemoglobin: oxygen-unloaded
    • Carbaminohemoglobin: carbon dioxide binds to hemoglobin
  30. Hemoglobin Composition
    Four globin molecules (polypeptide chains): 
    Transport carbon dioxide and nitric oxide. NO brought from lungs to tissues, induces smooth muscles to relax, lowering BP.
  31. Hemoglobin Composition
    Four heme molecules, each containing one iron atom: 
    transport oxygen
  32. iron
    required for oxygen transport. Iron absorbed in upper small intestine; absorption increased by stomach acid and vitamin C. Iron lost in urine, feces, menstrual fluid.
  33. Erythropoiesis
    Mature RBCs last 120 days in circulation
  34. Erythropoietin
    hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels.
  35. Erythropoiesis
    are RBC's found in higher concentrations in males or females?
    males
  36. what effect does estrogen have on erythropoieses?
    inhibitory effect
  37. what effect does testosterone have on erythropoetin?
    acceleratory
  38. what is the function of white blood cells?
    Protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris
  39. Neutrophils
    • After leaving bone marrow, stay in circulation 10-12 hours then move into other tissues.
    • Become motile, phagocytize bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes and other foreign matter.  Secrete lysozyme.
    • Last 1-2 days. 
    • Most numerous
  40. Eosinophils
    • Leave circulation and enter tissues during inflammatory response.
    • Prevalent in allergic reactions.
    • Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine.
    • Release chemicals that help destroy tapeworms, flukes,
    • pinworms, and hookworms
  41. Basophils
    • Leave circulation and migrate through tissues, play a role in both inflammatory response and allergic reactions. 
    • Produce histamine and heparin. 
    • Least common. 
  42. Lymphocytes
    • Produced in red bone marrow but then migrate to lymphatic tissues and proliferate.
    • Responsible for antibody production. 
  43. Monocytes
    • Remain in circulation for 3 days, leave circulation and become macrophages.  
    • Phagocytic cells.
    • Can break down antigens and present them to lymphocytes for recognition
  44. Platelets
    • Cell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in red bone marrow
    • Important in preventing blood loss
    • Platelet plugs
    • Promoting formation and contraction of clots
  45. what is the arrest of blood?
    hemostatsis
  46. what are three events that prevent excessive blood loss? 
    • Vascula spasm: Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessels. Can occlude small vessels.
    • Platelet plug formation
    • Coagulation or blood clotting
  47. 3 stages of coagulation
    • 1.Activation of prothrombinase
    • 2.Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
    • 3.Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
  48. Coagulation factors. 
    • Proteins found in plasma. 
    • Circulate in inactive state until tissues are injured.
    • Damaged tissues and platelets produce chemicals that begin activation of the factors.
  49. blood clot
    A network of threadlike fibrin fibers, trapped blood cells, platelets and fluid
  50. Transfusion:
    transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another
  51. Infusion:
    introduction of fluid other than blood
  52. what is blood type determined by?
    antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs
  53. Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in? 
    agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs
  54. two groups for blood typing?
    ABO and Rh
  55. Functions of the Heart (4)
    • Generating blood pressure
    • Routing blood: separates pulmonary and systemic circulations 
    • Ensuring one-way blood flow: valves
    • Regulating blood supply
    • Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic needs
  56. the human heart is the size of what?
    a closed fist
  57. what is the apex of the heart
    blunt rounded point of the cone
  58. what is the base of the heart
    flat part opposite the cone
  59. where is the heart located?
    Located in thoracic cavity in mediastinum (central core of the thoracic cavity;everything in the thoracic cavity except the lungs)
  60. Fibrous pericardium: 
    tough fibrous outer layer. Prevents over distention; acts as anchor
  61. Serous pericardium: 
    thin, transparent, inner layer. Simple squamous epithelium
  62. Parietal pericardium: 
    lines the fibrous outer layer
  63. Visceral pericardium (epicardium):
    covers heart surface
  64. what are the three layers of heart wall tissue?
    • Epicardium: Serous membrane; smooth outer surface of heart
    • Myocardium: Middle layer composed of cardiac muscle cell and responsibility for heart contracting
    • Endocardium: Smooth inner surface of heart chambers
  65. Pectinate muscles: 
    muscular ridges in auricles and right atrial wall
  66. Trabeculae carnae:
    muscular ridges and columns on inside walls of ventricles

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