A and P review 3

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eleanorgwenmurtagh
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181510
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A and P review 3
Updated:
2012-11-04 01:58:19
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anatomy phys review
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review 3, systems and other review
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  1. The genitourinary system contains?
    • 2 kidneys
    • urethra
    • 2 ureter
    • urinary bladder
  2. What is kidney filtration directly affected by?
    • blood pressure
    • blood pressure rises kidney filtration rises
    • blood pressure decreases kidney filtration decreases
  3. scrotum
    • pendulous sacs of skin covering the testes
    • acts as a thermoregulatory structure
  4. describe the structure of the uterus
    hollow, thick walled
  5. what happens during estrous
    prepares to accept the fetus, maintains the fetus, produces uterin milk
  6. how long is the reproductive estrous cycle?
    63-65 days for feline and canine
  7. when is the first heat cycle in canines?
    5.5-6 months
  8. what are signs of estrus in canines?
    • vulva swelling
    • increased excitement
    • become attractive to males
    • straw coloured discharge
    • stand for mountain
  9. what are the signs of estrus in felines?
    • overly affectionate
    • posture/ lordosis
    • very vocal
  10. what are the two main portions of the nervous system?
    CNS- Central nervous system (brain, spinal cord)

    PNS- Peripheral nervous system(all nerves that come of the brain and spinal cord)
  11. what are the main functions of the CNS?
    • computer stystem main central process unit
    • -allows the animal to respond to external and internal stimuli
  12. What are the names and processes of the main nerves in the CNS?
    sensory-Afferent-bring inpulses from system to the brain

    motor-efferent- send messages to the brain from body systems
  13. What is the BBB?
    blood brain barrier-regulates the passage way of nutritive and chemical molecules in the brain
  14. what is CSF??
    cerebral spinal fluid-think watery fluid acts as protection for brain and spinal cord and nutrients
  15. what are the main functions of the PNS?
    -Cranial, spinal and automonic
  16. what is the ANS?
    autonomic nervous system-functions automatically innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands.
  17. what are the parasympathetic nerves affecting?
    • Restful situations-
    • pupils constrict
    • normalises B.P and H.R
    • normal blood flow
    • sphinkter relaxes
    • bronchi return to normal
  18. what are the sympathetic nerves for?
    • stressful sitations-flight or fight
    • -dilated pupils
    • -dilated bronhi
    • -increased heart rate
    • -b.p rises
    • -blood shunts(digestion ceases)
    • -sphinkter retracts
  19. what are the three portions of hearing?
    • external
    • middle
    • inner
  20. what are the jobs of the three portions of hearing?
    pinna-external portion of ear

    external ear canal-pinna to external auditory meatus

    • -lined with skin and ends at the tympanic membrane
    • middle ear canal-small air filled cavity in the skull lined with m.m
  21. what is the Eustachian tube?
    pressure equalization 3 tiny bones that bridge the middle ear and transmit sound waves
  22. explain how the heart works:
    the right atrium recieves deoxygenated blood from the body and pumped into the right ventricle to the lungs for oxygen

    the left atrium recieves reoxygenated blood back from the lungs and is pumped into the left ventricle and delivers blood to the rest of the body
  23. what is the cardiac cycle?
    contraction--systole--systoliv pressure

    relaxation--diastole--diastolic pressure
  24. blood pressure?
    force asserted by the heart as it pumps blood through the vessels to the body
  25. what do the arteries pump around the body?
    oxygenated blood
  26. pulse
    pulse rythm is transmitted to the surface arteries that can be palpated (felt)
  27. pulse deficit?
    when the pulse rate does not match the heart rate
  28. what is basic ciculation?
    • systematic circulation
    • portal circulation (through liver)
    • pulmonary circulation (through heart)
  29. what is the order in which blood is ciculated through the body?
    blood > digestive organs >liver> right atrium (beginning of pulmonary circulation) >right ventricle >lungs (gas exchange)>left atrium>left ventricle> body
  30. what two types of swelling and pain can occur in the lymphnodes?
    accute- (suddenly)- swelling/pain

    chronic-swelling,lobulated, non painful
  31. lymph nodes?
    manufacture WBC (lymphocytes and mono cytes)
  32. What are the main functions of the spleen?
    • enlarges with infection
    • forms blood (hemapoiesis)
    • storage area for blood
    • phagocytosis (removal and destruction of microorganisms, faulty platelets, old RBC
  33. what are the tonsils and there jobs?
    • 3 pairs of round masses of lymphoid tissue
    • -filters out bacteria
    • -play a role in creating WBC 
  34. what is the thymus and some facts on it?
    • located in the mediastinum
    • -inportant to produce cells to destroy foreign substances
    • -form WBC
    • -atrophies (decreases in size) once immune system matures
  35. what is a long bone?
    femur, humerus
  36. what is a flat bone?
    sternum, scapula, pelvis
  37. what is a short bone?
    carpus, tarsus
  38. what is an irregular bone?
    vertebrae, inner ear, os-penis of a dog
  39. what is the os-penis?
    bone within the penis to help with reproduction
  40. what are the facial muscles and how do they aid?
    • facial movement, expressions, chewing
    • -neck, back, thorax, rotation of head, flexing and extention of head and breathing.
  41. what do our forelimbs aid in?
    move our distal extremities
  42. what do our andominal muslces aid in?
    keep viscara in place,rotate vertebral column
  43. what are the most inportant muscles for I.M injections?
    • (hamstrings)-semi membranosis
    •                  -semi tendonosis
    • lumbar
    • quad- not as common
  44. what organs are involved in the integumentary system?
    • hair/coat
    • whiskers
    • skin
    • sweat glands
    • sebacious glands
    • nails
  45. what is the apocrine gland?
    found throughout the body secreating strong smelling substance into the hair folicle
  46. what is the eccrine gland?
    • -embedded in the dermis
    • -have a duct that emerges on the skin produce watery sweat
    • -on canine and feline glands are located between nostrils and on the pads of feet
  47. what are the jobs of the sebacious gland?
    • secreate sebum
    • lubricates the skin and hair
    • waterproofs the coat
    • increases the spread of sweat
    • slows bacterial growth
    • territory marker
    • anal glands
  48. the cermunious gland is what type of gland?
    modified sweat gland- creates cermumen (ear wax)
  49. what type of tissue is the nail?
    • modified epithelial tissue
    • -consist of wall, sole and pad
    • -functions to protect the underlying structures
    • -for scratching digging and defence
  50. what are dewclaws and when should they be removed?
    • medial phallanges
    • -should be removed at 3-5 days old
  51. what is a scissor bite?
    in which the upper incisors just overlap and touch the lower incisors
  52. what is a overshot bite?
    overbite, upper jaw is longer than the lower jaw
  53. what is a undershot?
    underbite where lower jaw is longer than the upper jaw
  54. what are true ribs?
    attatch dorsally at thoratic vertebraw also attatch ventrally at sternum
  55. what are false ribs?
    attatch into sternum by a cartilage
  56. what are floating ribs?
    some dont attatch at all to the sternum
  57. what do the ribs form?
    thoratic wall that protects the heart and lungs
  58. how many ribs are there?
    13-18 depending on species
  59. what is the sternum?
    • unpaired series of flat bones and cartialge
    • attatchment point for ribs
  60. what are the forelimbs?
    • scapula (shoulder blades)
    • humerus
    • radius/ulna
    • carpus
    • metacarpals
    • phallanges
  61. what are the hind limbs?
    • femur
    • tibia and fibula
    • tarsal
    • metatarsals
    • phallanges
  62. rostrally
    towards the nose
  63. buccal surface
    contact with cheek
  64. labial surface
    contact with lips
  65. palatal surface
    contact with roof of mouth
  66. lingual surface
    tooth in contact with tongue
  67. cranial
    towards the head (not for limbs)
  68. caudal
    towards the tail (hind end) not for limbs
  69. mid line
    actual line that splits the bodyinto left and right halves
  70. lateral
    away from the midline
  71. medial
    towards the midline
  72. ventral
    towards the belly
  73. dorsal
    towards the back
  74. distal
    further away from the midline (point of origin) use when discribing limbs
  75. proximal
    closer to the point of origin (used when describing limbs)
  76. what are the organs of the respiratory system?
    • nose,
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
  77. what are the accesory structures of the respiratory system?
    • thorax
    • diaphragm
  78. what are the main functions of the respiratory system?
    • add o2 to the blood 
    • remove c02
    • maintain PH of the body
    • provides vocalizaton
  79. PH?
    acid base
  80. what are the secondary functions of the respiratory systems?
    regulate body temp (panting)
  81. what role does the nose play in the respiratory system?
    • entrance/exit for air
    • lined with mm and cillia to trap debris (physical defence for immune system)
    • warms the air that enters the body
    • has olfactory receptors= sense of smell located in the mucosa
  82. what is the pharynx role in the respiratory system?
    acts as a passage way for food and air
  83. what are the 3 portions of the pharynx?
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx-back of mouth
    • laryngopharynx- in larynx into asphocus
  84. epiglotis
    lid shaped cartilage that prevents food from entering the airway during swallowing
  85. what is the endocrine system comprised of?
    • ductless glands
    • pituitary 
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • adrenals
    • pancreas
    • pineal
    • ovaries
    • testes
  86. what is a ductless gland?
    rely on blood to carry secreations around body not ducts
  87. pituitary glands
    contols all other glands
  88. thyroid gland
    plays a roll in our metabolism secretes thyroxin and calcitonin
  89. thyroxine
    t4 regulates growth and development and metabolism
  90. calcitonin
    promotes calcium absorbtion in the bones
  91. parathyroid glands
    2 on each side located close to the thyroid
  92. parathyroid gland
    • regulates calcium and phosphurous content in the blood and bones
    • -the ratio affects blood formation, milk production, and normal neuromuscular exictablity
  93. Adrenal glands
    • produce epinephrin
    • aids body with coping with stress and aids in defence
  94. pineal gland
    • located at base of brain
    • aids in circadian rythms
    • inhibits ovarian functions 
    • secreats melatonin
  95. pancreas?
    insulen and glucogon production
  96. glycogen
    temporary storage of glucose in the muscles
  97. what is the gastrointestinal systems main role?
    passage of nutrient intake from mouth to anus where waste elimination takes place.
  98. g.i main process of waste and nutrients disposal is?
    obtain nutrients>transport>mechanical breakdown>obsorb nutrients>waste formation>elimination
  99. oral cavity contains?
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • si
    • li
    • liver
    • pancreas
  100. prehension
    obtain food
  101. mastication
    chewing food
  102. deglutation
    swallowing food
  103. what is a diphydont?
    a animal that has 2 sets of teeth, decidals and permanent teeth
  104. what is the stomachs role?
    • stores food
    • digestive enzymes break down food
  105. chime?
    the name for food after it has been mixed with the digestive enzymes in the stomach
  106. vili?
    hairs that line the small intestine
  107. what is the large intestines main role?
    water and electrolyte absorbtion

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