A and P review 3
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The genitourinary system contains?
- 2 kidneys
- 2 ureter
- urinary bladder
What is kidney filtration directly affected by?
- blood pressure
- blood pressure rises kidney filtration rises
- blood pressure decreases kidney filtration decreases
- pendulous sacs of skin covering the testes
- acts as a thermoregulatory structure
describe the structure of the uterus
hollow, thick walled
what happens during estrous
prepares to accept the fetus, maintains the fetus, produces uterin milk
how long is the reproductive estrous cycle?
63-65 days for feline and canine
when is the first heat cycle in canines?
what are signs of estrus in canines?
- vulva swelling
- increased excitement
- become attractive to males
- straw coloured discharge
- stand for mountain
what are the signs of estrus in felines?
- overly affectionate
- posture/ lordosis
- very vocal
what are the two main portions of the nervous system?
CNS- Central nervous system (brain, spinal cord)
PNS- Peripheral nervous system(all nerves that come of the brain and spinal cord)
what are the main functions of the CNS?
- computer stystem main central process unit
- -allows the animal to respond to external and internal stimuli
What are the names and processes of the main nerves in the CNS?
sensory-Afferent-bring inpulses from system to the brain
motor-efferent- send messages to the brain from body systems
What is the BBB?
blood brain barrier-regulates the passage way of nutritive and chemical molecules in the brain
what is CSF??
cerebral spinal fluid-think watery fluid acts as protection for brain and spinal cord and nutrients
what are the main functions of the PNS?
-Cranial, spinal and automonic
what is the ANS?
autonomic nervous system-functions automatically innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands.
what are the parasympathetic nerves affecting?
- Restful situations-
- pupils constrict
- normalises B.P and H.R
- normal blood flow
- sphinkter relaxes
- bronchi return to normal
what are the sympathetic nerves for?
- stressful sitations-flight or fight
- -dilated pupils
- -dilated bronhi
- -increased heart rate
- -b.p rises
- -blood shunts(digestion ceases)
- -sphinkter retracts
what are the three portions of hearing?
what are the jobs of the three portions of hearing?
pinna-external portion of ear
external ear canal-pinna to external auditory meatus
- -lined with skin and ends at the tympanic membrane
- middle ear canal-small air filled cavity in the skull lined with m.m
what is the Eustachian tube?
pressure equalization 3 tiny bones that bridge the middle ear and transmit sound waves
explain how the heart works:
the right atrium recieves deoxygenated blood from the body and pumped into the right ventricle to the lungs for oxygen
the left atrium recieves reoxygenated blood back from the lungs and is pumped into the left ventricle and delivers blood to the rest of the body
what is the cardiac cycle?
force asserted by the heart as it pumps blood through the vessels to the body
what do the arteries pump around the body?
pulse rythm is transmitted to the surface arteries that can be palpated (felt)
when the pulse rate does not match the heart rate
what is basic ciculation?
- systematic circulation
- portal circulation (through liver)
- pulmonary circulation (through heart)
what is the order in which blood is ciculated through the body?
blood > digestive organs >liver> right atrium (beginning of pulmonary circulation) >right ventricle >lungs (gas exchange)>left atrium>left ventricle> body
what two types of swelling and pain can occur in the lymphnodes?
accute- (suddenly)- swelling/pain
chronic-swelling,lobulated, non painful
manufacture WBC (lymphocytes and mono cytes)
What are the main functions of the spleen?
- enlarges with infection
- forms blood (hemapoiesis)
- storage area for blood
- phagocytosis (removal and destruction of microorganisms, faulty platelets, old RBC
what are the tonsils and there jobs?
- 3 pairs of round masses of lymphoid tissue
- -filters out bacteria
- -play a role in creating WBC
what is the thymus and some facts on it?
- located in the mediastinum
- -inportant to produce cells to destroy foreign substances
- -form WBC
- -atrophies (decreases in size) once immune system matures
what is a long bone?
what is a flat bone?
sternum, scapula, pelvis
what is a short bone?
what is an irregular bone?
vertebrae, inner ear, os-penis of a dog
what is the os-penis?
bone within the penis to help with reproduction
what are the facial muscles and how do they aid?
- facial movement, expressions, chewing
- -neck, back, thorax, rotation of head, flexing and extention of head and breathing.
what do our forelimbs aid in?
move our distal extremities
what do our andominal muslces aid in?
keep viscara in place,rotate vertebral column
what are the most inportant muscles for I.M injections?
- (hamstrings)-semi membranosis
- -semi tendonosis
- quad- not as common
what organs are involved in the integumentary system?
- sweat glands
- sebacious glands
what is the apocrine gland?
found throughout the body secreating strong smelling substance into the hair folicle
what is the eccrine gland?
- -embedded in the dermis
- -have a duct that emerges on the skin produce watery sweat
- -on canine and feline glands are located between nostrils and on the pads of feet
what are the jobs of the sebacious gland?
- secreate sebum
- lubricates the skin and hair
- waterproofs the coat
- increases the spread of sweat
- slows bacterial growth
- territory marker
- anal glands
the cermunious gland is what type of gland?
modified sweat gland- creates cermumen (ear wax)
what type of tissue is the nail?
- modified epithelial tissue
- -consist of wall, sole and pad
- -functions to protect the underlying structures
- -for scratching digging and defence
what are dewclaws and when should they be removed?
- medial phallanges
- -should be removed at 3-5 days old
what is a scissor bite?
in which the upper incisors just overlap and touch the lower incisors
what is a overshot bite?
overbite, upper jaw is longer than the lower jaw
what is a undershot?
underbite where lower jaw is longer than the upper jaw
what are true ribs?
attatch dorsally at thoratic vertebraw also attatch ventrally at sternum
what are false ribs?
attatch into sternum by a cartilage
what are floating ribs?
some dont attatch at all to the sternum
what do the ribs form?
thoratic wall that protects the heart and lungs
how many ribs are there?
13-18 depending on species
what is the sternum?
- unpaired series of flat bones and cartialge
- attatchment point for ribs
what are the forelimbs?
- scapula (shoulder blades)
what are the hind limbs?
- tibia and fibula
towards the nose
contact with cheek
contact with lips
contact with roof of mouth
tooth in contact with tongue
towards the head (not for limbs)
towards the tail (hind end) not for limbs
actual line that splits the bodyinto left and right halves
away from the midline
towards the midline
towards the belly
further away from the midline (point of origin) use when discribing limbs
closer to the point of origin (used when describing limbs)
what are the organs of the respiratory system?
what are the accesory structures of the respiratory system?
what are the main functions of the respiratory system?
- add o2 to the blood
- remove c02
- maintain PH of the body
- provides vocalizaton
what are the secondary functions of the respiratory systems?
regulate body temp (panting)
what role does the nose play in the respiratory system?
- entrance/exit for air
- lined with mm and cillia to trap debris (physical defence for immune system)
- warms the air that enters the body
- has olfactory receptors= sense of smell located in the mucosa
what is the pharynx role in the respiratory system?
acts as a passage way for food and air
what are the 3 portions of the pharynx?
- oropharynx-back of mouth
- laryngopharynx- in larynx into asphocus
lid shaped cartilage that prevents food from entering the airway during swallowing
what is the endocrine system comprised of?
- ductless glands
what is a ductless gland?
rely on blood to carry secreations around body not ducts
contols all other glands
plays a roll in our metabolism secretes thyroxin and calcitonin
t4 regulates growth and development and metabolism
promotes calcium absorbtion in the bones
2 on each side located close to the thyroid
- regulates calcium and phosphurous content in the blood and bones
- -the ratio affects blood formation, milk production, and normal neuromuscular exictablity
- produce epinephrin
- aids body with coping with stress and aids in defence
- located at base of brain
- aids in circadian rythms
- inhibits ovarian functions
- secreats melatonin
insulen and glucogon production
temporary storage of glucose in the muscles
what is the gastrointestinal systems main role?
passage of nutrient intake from mouth to anus where waste elimination takes place.
g.i main process of waste and nutrients disposal is?
obtain nutrients>transport>mechanical breakdown>obsorb nutrients>waste formation>elimination
oral cavity contains?
what is a diphydont?
a animal that has 2 sets of teeth, decidals and permanent teeth
what is the stomachs role?
- stores food
- digestive enzymes break down food
the name for food after it has been mixed with the digestive enzymes in the stomach
hairs that line the small intestine
what is the large intestines main role?
water and electrolyte absorbtion
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