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What does Holism emphasize?
Nurses must keep the whole person in mind and strive to understand how one area of concern relates to the whole person. The nurse must also consider the relationship of the individual to the exernal environment and to others.
Abreham Maslow, Hierarchy of needs:
- Physiologic needs: needs such as air, food, water, shelter, rest, sleep, activity, and temperature maintenance are crucial for survival.
- Safety and security needs: The need for safety has both pysical and psychologic aspects. The person needs to feel safe, both in the physical environment and in relationships
- Love and belonging needs: the thrid level of needs includes giving and receiving affection, attaining a place in a group, and maintaining the feeling of belonging.
- Self-esteem needs: The individual needs both self-esteem and esteem from others.
- Self-actualization: When the need for self-esteem is satisfied, the individual strives for self-actualization, the innate need to develop one's maximum potential and realize one's abilities and qualities.
What are the three levels of prevention?
- Primary prevention: focuses on health promotion and protection against specific health problems (Immunizatinon against hepatitis B. The puropse of primary prevention is to decrease the risk or exposure of the individual or community to disease
- Secondary Prevention: Focuses on early identification of health problems and prompt intervention to alleviate health problems. Its goal is to identify individuals in an early stage of a disease process and to limit future diability.
- Teriary Prevention: Focuses on restoration and rehabilitation with the goal of returning the individual to and optimal level of functioning.
Describe Primary Prevention?
- Generalized health promotion and specifc protection against disease. It precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to generally healthy individuals or groups.
- Examples: Immunization, Health education about injury and poisoning prevention, protection aginst occupational hazards, risk assessments for specific disease, family planning services
Describe Secondary Prevention?
- Emphasizes early detection of disease, prompt intervention, and health maintenance for individuals experiencing health problems. Includes prevention of complications and diabilities.
- Examples: Screening surveys and procedures of any type, encouraging regular medical and dental checkups, assessing the growth and development of children, nursing assessments and care provided in home, hospital, or other agency to prevent complications.
Describe Tertiary prevention?
- Begins after an illness, when a defect of disability is fixed, stabilized, or determined to be irreversible. Its focus is to help rehabilitate individuals and restore them to an optimim level of functioning within the constraints of the disability.
- Example: Referring a client who has had a colostomy to a support group, teaching a client who has diabetes to identify and prevent comlications, referring a client with a spinal cord injury to a rehabilitation center to receive training that will maximize use of remaining abilities
Health behavior change is a cyclic phenomenon in which people progress through several stages. What are the stages?
- Precontemplation stage: The person does not think about changing his or her behavior in the next 6 months. tend to aoid reading, talking, or thinking about their high rist behaviors
- Contemplation Stage: The person acknowledges having a problem, seriously considers changing a specific behavior, actively gathers information, and verbalizes plans to change the behavior in the near future (next 6 months)
- Preparation Stage: Occurs when the person intends to take action in the immediate future. the person makes the final specific plans to accomplish the change.
- Action Stage: Occus when the person actively implements behavioral and cognitive strategies of the action plan to interrupt previous health risk behaviors and adopt new ones.
- termination Stage: The ultimate goal where the individual has complete confidence that the problem is no longer a temptation or threat.