Urinary System

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Author:
rwilliams144
ID:
181520
Filename:
Urinary System
Updated:
2012-11-04 01:49:27
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Urinary System
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Urinary System
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  1. Composition:
    • 2 Kidneys
    • 2 ureters
    • bladder
    • urethra
  2. function
    • maintains internal balance or homeostasis 
    • formation of urine
    • removal of nit waste and toxins (protein metabolism)
    • water balance-- excretes or conserves water
    • electrolyte balance- regulates excretion of electrolytes
    • acid base balance- Hydrogen- conserve bicarbonate
    • Regulation of BP- meds
  3. where are the kidneys located
    • behind peritoneum. 
    • Right-- lower
    • Left-- higher
  4. structure os kidneys
    • 4" long
    • 2" wide
    • 1" thick
    • no boney protection
    • bean shaped
  5. protection of kidney
    • adipose capsule-- fat
    • renal fascia-- connective tissue
  6. hilum of kidney
    • notched area- medial surface
    • blood vessels, nerves, ureter enter. 
  7. Internal Renal Cortex
    • outer layer of the kidney
    • Bowman's capsule
    • proximal convoluted tubules
    • distal convoluted tubule
  8. Internal Renal medulla 
    • inner portion of the kidney
    • pyramids- collecting tubules and loop of Henle
    • base- face the cortex
    • papillae- tip or apex
    • drain into calyx 
    • triangular shaped 
  9. internal renal pelvis
    expansion of the upper end of the ureter-- leaves the kidney
  10. internal Calyces
    divisions of the renal pelvis
  11. microscopic structure-- nephron
    functional units of the kidney that filter the waste products from the blood and form urine. (cleans)
  12. glomerulus
    cluster of tiny blood vessels/capillaries
  13. Bowman's capsule
    encloses the glomerulus
  14. afferent arteriole
    • brings blood into the glomerulus
    • larger than efferent
  15. efferent arteriole
    • carries away remaning blood
    • branches into peritubular capillaries
    • smaller than afferent
  16. renal tubule or convoluted tubule
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • loop of Henle
    • distal convulted tubule becomes collecting tubule, drains into caylce and renal pelvis. 
  17. peritubular capillaries
    rise off eff arteriole, wind around conv tubule
  18. Route of blood thru nephron
    • Renal Artery- blood with waste
    • Afferent Arteriole
    • Glomerulus
    • Efferent Arteriole
    • Peritubular Capillaries
    • Renal Vein
    • IVC
    • recirculates in body
  19. Route of urine/filtrate thru nephron
    • Bowman's capsule
    • Prox. Convoluted Tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal Conv tubule
    • Collecting tubule
    • renal pyramids
    • Renal Pelvis
    • Ureter
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Urethra
    • excreted as urine
  20. formation of urine through filtration
    glmoerulus blood pressure causes water and dissolved sub to filter out of the blood into Bow. cap-- nephric filtrate
  21. formation of urine through reabsorbtion
    • movement of sub out of the renal tubules into the blood in the peritubular cap
    • water- osmosis- 99%
    • sodium- active transport
    • glucose- 100%
    • back to blood
  22. formation of urine through secretion
    • movement of sub into the urine to form the blood in the peritubular cap.
    • Hydrogen- active transport
    • K- active transport
    • ammonia(NH3)- diffusion
    • drug
    • all go to conv tubule, into urine
  23. aldosterone
    • from adrenal cortex
    • increase absorption of Na and water
    • decrease urine volume
  24. ADH
    • from post pit glad
    • increase reabsorption of water
    • decrease urine
  25. ANH
    • decrease Na and water resorption
    • increase urine volume
    • from atria
  26. anuria
    absence of urine
  27. oliguria
    less than 30 ml of urine
  28. polyuria
    large amt of urine
  29. blood pressure regulator
    • group of specialized cells near nephron sensitive to BP changes
    • ADH
    • ANH
    • RBC formation- erythropoietin- secretion hormone
    • activation of Vit D- calcitrol- potent form of vit D
  30. juxtaglomerular complex or apparatus-- renin angiotensin-- aldosterone systen
    increase BP activates
  31. ureters
    narrow tube extending from the reanl pelvis to bladder
  32. bladder
    • reservoir where urine is stored
    •  transitional epithlium
    •  rugae- folds
    •  trigone- floor
    • Detrusor Muscle
  33. urethra
    • tube through which urine passes outide
    • longer in men- reproductive function
    • short in women increase risk for uti
  34. urine characteristics
    • 1500-2000 ml excreted daily
    • clear, amber, or straw color
    • specific gravity- 1.001-1.035
    • sterile
  35. urine composition
    • water
    • nit waste
    • excessive material- vits...
    • toxins- meds
    • hormones
    • yellow pigment

    • abnormal components
    •  RBC
    •  glucose
    •  WBS/pus
    •  casts
    •  albumin
    •    may see in small amts-- normal
  36. micturition
    release of urine from the body
  37. regulatory sphincters
    • involuntary- internal
    • voluntary- external
  38. emptying reflex
    stretch reflex at 350 ml urine bladder walls constrict
  39. urine retention
    cystitis
  40. age related changes
    • loss of functional nephron units
    • loss of kidney weight
    • nerve transmission impaired
    • decrease bladder capacity
    • urinary retention

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