The Reproductive System

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rwilliams144
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181521
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The Reproductive System
Updated:
2012-11-04 23:23:31
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reproductive system
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reproductive system
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  1. Function
    • development of sex cells
    • production of sex hormones
    • fertilization
    • development of offspring
    • nourishment of offspring
  2. Common characteristics for male and female
    • essential organs- gonads- produce sex cells gametes or germ cell
    • men-testes
    • women-ovaries

    • sex cell- germ cell or gametes- multiply quickly
    • men-sperm
    • women- ova
  3. common hormonal influences
    • gonadotrophins- anterior pituitary gland hormones produce:
    • FSH- follicle stimulating hormone and
    • LH- luteinizing hormone

    • sex hormones- rep system
    • men- testosterone
    • women- estrogen and progesterone
  4. Male essential organ
    testes- located in scrotum, 2 sacks below groin and thigh. decrease temp to allow sperm production.
  5. accesory organs for males
    • ducts- passageway for sperm
    • sex glands- produce protective solution for sperm to travel
    • external genitals- 
  6. testes structure- tunica albuguinea
    • outer covering
    • enter gland and forms septra which divides into
    • Lobules- contain the seminiferous tubules
    • Sem. Tubules- sperm produced
  7. testes structure- inerstitial cells
    • specialized cells
    • produce testosterone
    • near the septra
  8. function of testes
    • spermatogenesis
    • production of testosterone
  9. Spermatogenesis
    • Sperm(spermatozoa) production
    • in sem tubules
    • how? Meiosis- 23 chromosomes. specilized cell division
    • when- puberty, continues through life span.
  10. sperm sturcture
    • Head-
    • Acrosome- hyaluronidase
    •   enzyme
    •   breaks down covering of the ovum
    •   allow sperm to enter ova for fertilization
    • Midpiece
    •   mitochondria
    •   energy for sperm
    • Flagellum
    •   tail, propels sperm
  11. Testosterone
    • inerstitial cells
    • puberty up to whole lifespan
    • SECONDARY CHARACTERISTICS
    •   deep voice
    •   facial hair
    •   muscle mass- protein anabolism
    •   promotes and maintains male acc organs. 
  12. Reproductive Ducts
    • Epididymis
    • Ductus Deferens or Vas deferns
    • Ejaculatory Duct
    • Urethra
  13. Epididymis
    • 6 M or 20 ft long
    • lies on top and behind the testes in the scrotum
    • sperm mature
  14. Vas Deferens
    • transports sperm from the scrotum to the abd cavity
    • Spermatic Cord
    •  vas deferns
    •  blood vessels
    •  nerves
  15. inguinal canal
    opening into abd cavity
  16. Vasectomy
    • small incision made on both sides to expose the vas. 
    • vas is tied in two places then or cut or cauterized
  17. Ejaculatory Duct
    • Formed from Vas Deferens
    • Duct of seminal vesicle
    • Passes through prostate gland
  18. Urethra
    • opens into exterior
    • Functions
    •   reproductive
    •   urinary
  19. Route of Sperm
    • Seminiferous Tubule
    • Testes
    • Epididymis
    • Ductus Deferens
    • Ejac Duct
    • Urethra
  20. Accesory sex glands  male
    • contribute secretions to the fluid portion of semen
    • Seminal Vesicles
    • Prostate Gland
    • Bulbourethral( Cowpers glands)
  21. Seminal Vesicles
    • 60% seminal fluid
    • secretion rich in fructose for energy
  22. Prostate
    • below bladder
    • donut shaped
    • urethra passes through
    • 30% sem fluid
    • acitvated sperm and maintains motility

    • Clinical Conditions
    •  Prostatic Hypertrophy
    •    BPH- Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
    •    Ca of the prostate
  23. Bulb glands
    • peas shaped
    • secretes mucous
    • less than 5% sem fluid
    • lubricated terminal portion of urethra
  24. Semen
    • Compostion
    •   sperm
    •   95% secretions of accessory glands
    • 3-5 ml per ejaculation
    • alkaline- protects from femal acidic environmnt
    • 100million sperm per mL
  25. External Genitals
    • Penis
    • Scrotum
  26. Structure of Penis
    • erectile tissue or spongy tissue
    •   2 dorsal-- corpora covernosa
    •   1 ventral-- corpus cpongiosusm
  27. Structure of glans penis
    • cup shaped
    • covered by forskin or prepuce
    • circumcison
  28. Function of penis
    • erectile tissue fill with blood during sex arousal-- erection
    • Deposition of sperm into vagina. 
  29. Structure of female rep system
    • ovaries- gonads- ess organs
    • Accessory Organs
    •   Ducts
    •     oviducts- fallopian tubes
    •     uterus
    •     vagina
    • Acessory glands
    • External genitalia
  30. Ovaries
    • inside pelvic cavity
    • Large almond size
    • 3 grams each
  31. Ovary microscopic structure
    • Ovarian follicle
    •   contains oocyte- immature ova
    •   1 million present at birth
    • primary follicle
    •   covered with granulose cells-- prduce estrogen
    •   potential to mature
    •   400,000 present at puberty
    •   350-500 will mature
  32. Graafian Follicle
    • mature ova and sac
    • about 350-500 in life span
    • covered with granulosa cells- secrete estrogen
  33. Corpus Luteum-- yellow body
    • Follicle after ovulation
    • secretes progesterone
  34. ovary function
    • oogenesis
    •   hormone production
    •    estrogen
    •    progesterone
  35. OOgenesis
    • ova production
    • meiotic cell division- 23 chromosomes
    • process complete by birth
  36. OVA
    • largest cell in body!
    • large amt of cytoplasm proveids nutrients for rapidly developing embryo
  37. Estrogen
    • Granulosa cells
    • development of rep organs
    • secondary sex characteristics
    • initiation of menses
  38. Progesterone
    • Corpus Luteum
    • proliferation of lining of uterus
    • maintains lining of uterus
    • maintains pregnancy
  39. Reproductive Ducts
    • Fallopian tubes
    • uterus
    • vagina
  40. Fallopian tubes
    uterine tubes
    oviducts
    • extend from uterus into abd cavity.. 10CM
    • Fimbriae- finger distal portion
    •   grabs ova after ovulation
    • Mucous lining continuous between uterus and abd cavity
    •   clinical sig of spread of endometriosis and infection
  41. parts of uterus
    • body- broad central portion
    • fundus
    •  upper portion, fallopian tubes into
    • cervix- cervival os or mouth of uterus
    •  lower narrow section
    •  diameter of lead pencil
  42. structure of uterus
    • perimetrium- outer layer
    • myometrium- middle layer, muscle
    • endometrium(decidua)
    •  lining
    •  sloughs off during menses
    • uterine cavity
  43. Uterus functions
    • menstration- sloughing off of endometrium
    •  occurs when progesterone and estrogen at lowest levels
    •  14 days follwing ovulation
    •  menarche- puberty
    •  menopause- age 50
  44. Uterine functions
    • Prenancy
    •  environment for growing fetus
    •  menstruation ceases- rich endometrium enchances fetal environment.
    • Labor
    •  contaction of muscle expels fetus
  45. Vagina
    • located between urinary bladder and rectum in pelvis
    • 10 cm long
    • capable of stretching
    • functional organ in intercourse
    • BIRTH CANAL
  46. Accessory glands or supportive glands
    • Bartholin's glands
    •  secretes mucous like lub fluid
    •  ducts open between labia minora
    • Breasts
    •  secrete milk to nourish newborn infant
  47. Breast
    • located over pectoral muscle of thorax
    • size determined by fat content
    •  no factor in milk secretion
  48. Breasts
    • lobes- division'
    • lobules
    • acini or alveoli cells
    •  milk secreting cells
    • Lactiferous Ducts
    •  drain milk into nipple from acini cells
    • Nipple
    •  pigmented stucture just below center of breast
    •  contains opening from lactiferous ducts
    • Areola
    •  pigmented area around nipple
  49. Ext Genitalia-- women
    • Mons pubis- fatty pad over symphysis pubis
    • Labia Majora
    •  2 large outer folds of fat
    •  extend from mons pubis to anus
    • Labia Minora
    •  2 smaller inner folds
  50. Ext genitalia- women
    • Vestibile
    •  orifice of urethra- urinary meatus
    •  bartholin's gland
    •  vaginal orifice or openings
    •   hymen- fold of mucous membrane at vaginal opening
    • Clitoris
    •  erectile tissue
    •  behind anterior junciton of labia minora
    • Perineum
    •  space between vaginal oriface and anus
  51. Menstrual cycle
    • involves changes in the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and breasts
    • caused by hormones to allow
    •  ovulation
    •  fertilization
    •  prep for uterine lining for fertilized ova
    •  disposal of uterine if no fertilization. 
  52. ovarian cycle and hormonal control
    • follicular phase
    •  fsh- follicle stimulating hormone
    •   anterior pit gland
    •  stimulates immature ovarian follicles to mature
    • estrogen- granulosa cells of maturing follicle
  53. luteal phase
    • LH- ovulation
    •  ant pit hormone
    •  release in response to estrogen surge
    • progesterone- corpus luteum
  54. ischemic phase
    • menstration occurs
    • corpus luteum degenerates
  55. puberty
    • stage n life where males and females are functional capable to reproduce
    • secondary sex charc. 
    • Males- 14-16
    • femals-10-14
    • amenorrhea- longer to puberty.. decrease fat
  56. puberty hormonal influence-- women
    • FSH- stimulates ovariam follicle to mature
    • LH- ovulation, production of progesterone
    • Estrogen- preliferation of uterine lining, secondary sex characteristics
    • Progesterone- proliferation of uterine lining, maintenance of lining
  57. male puberty hormones
    • FSH- sperm production initiated
    • LH- prod of testosterone
    • testosterone- secondary male characterisitics

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