Anthro 33

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Anthro 33
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  1. AAVE stands for
    • African American Vernacular English(sometimes called Ebonics)
    • -non-standard dialect
    • -is not:
    • 1.slang
    • 2.bad grammar
    • 3.swearing
  2. Central vs Peripheral group membership
    • -Quotative markers and social differentiation used to see who is part of the group(central) and who is not(peripheral)
    • -Article: "Exclusion in girls peer groups" by Goodwin
    • -Central members are likely to talk negatively about peripheral members
    • -Naming girls “tag alongs” because they don’t fully belong to the group (peripheral member)
    • -
  3. Adjaceny pair
    a sequence of two utterances, next to one another, and produced by two different speakers.

    Ex: compliments -> thanks. "Conversationally thought to be next to one another"
  4. Commuity of practice
    • -Based around shared participation in practices and activities
    • -Group is together because they do activities together
    • -joint/mutual engagement
    • -identity practices (not categories)
    • -bottom-up/emic 
    • Ex.Clubs, cliques
  5. Example of speech community
    Architecture: specific words to describe architecture, that only an architect could understand, but still within the English language
  6. Dinner table narratives (participant roles; power dynamics)
    • 1. Protagonist 
    • -Usually the child
    • -Their actions and stories are the ones commented on
    • -Main character
    • -Vulnerable
    • 2. Introducer
    • -Usually the mom
    • -introduces the topic
    • 3.Primary recipient
    • -Gets to evaluate and is thought of as “family judge”
    • -Designated by introducer
    • -Usually the father
    • 4. The Problematizer
    • -One who calls out someone for his/her actions or stories
    • -Supports ‘Father Knows Best’ dynamic because father can usually be the one who deems actions/stories correct or not
    • *Gender relations are power relations
    • Article: "Father knows Best" by Ochs and Taylor
  7. AAVE Syntax
    • 1. Droppng final "s' for:
    • -3rd person singular (she walk)
    • -plurals (four girl)
    • -possessives (the teacher clerk)
    • 2. Verb conjugations
    • -tense: when the action takes place
    • -aspect: how the action takes place 
    • (habitual, one; completed/ in progress)
    • -"Every morning I sits and rides": Habitual: use of "s"
    • -"Bruce be runnin": Habitual: use of "be"
    • -"She bin runnin": Habitual: use of "bin"
    • -"I den finished that already":Completed: use of "den"
    • -"They finna do something": Future: use of "finna"
  8. Phonological Features of AAVE
    • - reduction of word-final consonant clusters (han')
    • - realization of final ng in geruns (walkin')
    • - realization of voiceless th (baf for bath)
    • - metathesis of transposition of adjacent consonants (aks for ask)
    • - stress on first rather than second syllable (POleece)
  9. Grammatical Features of AAVE
    • - removing is and are (he tall)
    • - use of be (he be walkin')
    • - use of be done (she be done had her baby)
    • - use of come to express speaker's indignation about an action or event (He come walkin in here..)
  10. What are 5 diverse beliefs within the African-American Speech community about AAE?
    • -"expressive" African character
    • -symbol of resistance to slavery & oppression,
    • -an indicator of a slave "mentality" or consciousness
    • -dynamic and always changing
    • -verbal dexterity is critical
  11. What are 3 ideologies about AE in the African American Community?
    • 1. it is the language of education, therefore status
    • 2. it can signal the rejection of membership in the African American community
    • 3. symbolic of historical oppression
  12. Who coined the term heteroglossia?
    Mikhail Bakhtin
  13. heteroglossia (and intertextuality)
    • -means taking a word from one context and using it in another context while pulling everything that comes with that word (the baggage, context).
    • -An example is the word “dude”. This word is associated with surfers, a relaxedcontext, when people use it they bring along with it the context of relaxed andyoung flavor
    • -Ex. "ill be back" or "call me maybe"
    • -Intertextuality: Quoting from a specific source but using a word with a certain connotation and use in a certain manner
  14. Emic vs Etic ( 2 types of data concering human behavior)
    • 1. Emic: A description of a behavor or belief, by someone in the group 
    • -someone that is apart of that culture
    • 2. Etic: A description of a behavor or belief, by the researcher
    • -more of an oberserver, culturally neutral
  15. English vs Spanish (social meanings and indexes at SJSH)
    • -Standard language: indexes high prestige
    • -Nonstandard: indexes low prestige, marginalized, rural (often uneducated) and negative characteristics are applied to their language
    • -Girls in gangs take pride in knowing Spanish better than those in other gangs (shows that they are really Mexican)
    • Ex. Surenas
    • -Surenas spoke and identified with spanish
    • -nortenas spoke english, were more bicultural
  16. Erasure (of gender in language)
    • -Language and Gender slides
    • -Syntactic erasure: defaulting to male pronoun (when not obvious); using ‘he’ as neutral pronoun in writing
    • -Grammatical erasure: using the male pronoun for mixed-sex groups (Ex. Ellos in spanish)
  17. Femininity (standard and non-mainstream alternatives)
    • 1.Standard: Raise families, take care of husband gentle, compassionate
    • 2.Non-mainstream: doing oppsitional identity
    • Ex. Homegirls ch. 5 discusses non-mainstream femininity; ‘Macha’ girls refuse gender norms and values and wear baggy clothes, run the household, fight, protect the street, etc…; wear makeup to be more Mexican or to show that they are ready to fight, not solely as a way to make themselves more attractive
  18. Article: Exclusion in Girls’ Peer Groups
    • -Author: Goodwin
    • -discusses how girls are thought of being caring and sweet, but in reality they are verbally and mentally aggressive
  19. Gender (as performance; indexes of; cross-cultural differences)
    • -Gender as performance: “doing” rather than “being” 
    • -Not sex /innate, gender is socially constructed
    • -Butler said "gender is drag": take the gender that we assume we are and enact it
  20. 2 Cultures Model
    -men and women learn different ways of speaking and interpret each others’ speech according to their own norms (Tannen and others)
  21. gender in language (of referent; of speaker)
    • 2 types of linguistic gender differences
    • 1. Identifying the gender of a referent
    • -He/she, man/woman, etc.
    • 2. Speaker’s gender (how men and woman speak)
    • -e.g. “so lovely” vs. “fucking awesome”
    • *Sex exclusive vs. sex preferential
    • *REFERENT NEEDS TO BE PROPERLY DEFINED
  22. Habitus
    • -a set of dispositions to act and react in certain ways, which are socialized and become embodied and ingrained(tendencies, preferences, defaults)
    • -Much that is “natural” or “right” is actually culturally based
    •      -Personal space; food sharing; cleanliness; marriage rules; childcare, etc.
    •      -Feminine/masculine behavior
  23. Hegemony; hegemonic norm
    • -hegemonic norm: the group with status/power
    • -Hegemonic is unmarked: normal; expected; standard
    • -Nonhegemonic is “marked”: different (sometimes deviant)
    • -Hegemonic = white, male heterosexual (middle class)
  24. Identity (performance of; indexicality and)
    • -Performing positive identity practices identify part of group 
    • -Performing negative identity practices, distance yourself from group
    • -Indexicality: Using a semiotic (signs and symbols) resource to indicate a social position , group affiliation, stance or allignment(relative to topic or interlocutor, person who takes part in a conversation)
  25. imagined community (vertical and lateral communication; importance on the national level)
    • -A community where all people may not know each other, but share an idea belonging to a collective (shared knowledge or values)
    • -shared experience and language on a larger scale
    • Ex. Mass media, newspaper, radio, internet 
    • -Vertical Communication: info is being talked about, being distributed, one-way communication
    • -Lateral communication: communication of the listeners, recievers
    • Ex. Anderson's notion of the imagined community is useful
    • -provides a model of a community where members may not all know one another but all sharean idea of belonging to a collectivity
  26. Indexicatlity
    • -using a semiotic (signs an symbols) resource to indicate social postion, group afiliation, stance or alignment (relative to topic or interlocuter)
    • -signs are arbitrary(random)
    • -signs vary across culture
    • -Direct indexicality: more internal and description
    • -Indirect indexicality: indexes features which are associated with a particular group
    • Ex. women use more polite forms, therefore politeness indirectly indexes femininity
    • indexing toughness----masculinity
  27. intercultural (mis) communication
    Misconception between korean and african americans
  28. IPA (what is it; what is it useful for)
    • -International Phonetic Alphabet 
    • -writing words the way they sound
    • Ex. This, Through
  29. language vs dialect (diference; complications of definitions)
    • -English is mutually intelligible
    • -American English vs British English are same language different dialects
  30. levels of language analysis: phonetics, morphology, syntax, semantics, discourse
    • 1.Phonetics: How we distinguish sounds
    • -Phonology: how the sound is structured
    • "spirit" but in spanish:"espirit"
    • 2.Morphology: parts of words, smallest unit of language that has meaning
    • Ex. "run", running, runner
    • 3.Syntax: how the word is structured
    • Ex."so": how is setup within a conversation
    • 4.Semantics: 
    • Ex. when does "bad" mean "good"
    • 5.Discourse: once you get beyond the phrase to actual conversation
  31. linguistic inferiority principle
    • -the  nonstand variety indexes low prestige, marginalized, rural, and often uneducated.
    • -Ex. "We don't know how to speak our own language."
    • -Negative characteristics of the group are applied to their language
    • -Such that unintelligent people-----> "sloppy" grammer, unsophisticated----> coarse phonology
  32. macha(values assoicated with; ways of indexing; contrast to other forms of femininity; as a self-protective practice)
    • -way to respect yourself and stand up for yourself
    • -taking charge of one's own self
  33. Marked vs unmarked
    • -Marked is the irregular relative to unmarked (the normal).
    • -Unmarked is the standard and marked is the non-standard.
    • -An example is hat female is markedwhile male is unmarked, queer is marked while straight is unmarked.
    • 1.Unmarked
    • -considered the standard,  default
    • -Male
    • -English
    • -hegemonic
    • 2. Marked
    • -not the standard 
    • -females
    • -other languages
    • -nn-hegemonic
  34. narratives (gender differences; participant roles; power dynamics)
    • 1.Men
    • -usually the teller
    • -individual reality 
    • -storeis display one's own skill, courage or wit (I saved the day!)
    • -skill, heroism (wasn't I great)
    • -details focus on place time, and object description
    • 2. Female
    • -teller or someone else
    • -social relaity
    • -stories portray protagonist as foolish/incompetet (saved by someone else)
    • -embarrassment/fear;skill aided by luck (wasn't i lucky?)
    • -details focus on character and reported dialog
  35. Nortenas and surenas (indexes of identity; language use)
    • -Nortenas speak spanish, wear eyeliner 
    • -eyeliner means toughness
  36. oppositional identity
    • -occurs when a minority group defines themselves in contrast to the mainstream. "we are defined by what we don't do"
    • -2 types of oppositional identity practices
    •           -Positive identity practices: identify as apart of the group
    •           - Negative identity practices: distance from other groups
  37. Pejoration (of gender)
    • -when a word takes on a lower status or more negatively valued meaning 
    • -Examples in gender terms:
    •      -Feminized form takes on a domestic or sexual connotation/meaning:
    •           o master (could be a master painter, master at some task)/mistress (the other woman, home wrecker)
    •           o governor/governess (person that takes care of the children; step up from a nanny, takes on domestic role)
    •           o bachelor (a single man that marriage material)/spinster (bachelorette?/Vegas parties, bachelorette parties before you get married, young and wild) (single woman who no one will want to marry)
    •           o dominator/dominatrix
  38. peformance (on-stage and off-stage; participant roles; connection with group identity)
    • -Off stage performance: world is a stage, peformance with anyone such as daily interactions you have with your friends
    • -Participant roles: Who's performing? Who's the audience?
    • -Connection with group identity:
  39. Prescriptive vs descriptive analysis of language
    • -Two different manners to examine language/behavior
    • 1. Prescriptive: specifying the proper way to speak or act (thinking or prescribing).
    • Ex. English teachers, parents, parents, police, etc, it is their goal to speak/ teach the english language correctly
    • -Prescriptive rule: Don't talk with your mouth full
    • 2. Descriptive: documenting/ describing how people actually behave, look at why people do things, don't do things, etc
    • Ex. Social scientists, novelists, filmmakers, anthropologists
    • -Descriptive Rule: People sometimes talk with their mouth full which often results in negative reaction from others
  40. self styling vs scripted speech in call centers(features of; conection to femminization)
    • -Taken from the article "Styling the worker" by cameron
    • -Self-styling: creates a feminization about it
    • -Scripted: enforces the group's speech to be similar
  41. self-talk (as performance)
    • -Self-talk can be performance for listeners
    • -Properly contextualize problematc actions
    • Ex. when you hurt yourself, you yell out "ouch"
    • -Acceptable self-talk
    • 1.self-repair:oops
    • 2.grief, pain
    • 3.Mumbling
    • 4.Shouting at drivers
  42. sex vs gender
    • -Sex: biological
    •    -To define sex one uses body structures (mass, skeleton), genitals, hormones and chromosomes.
    •    -Binary(male/female)
    •     -fixed
    • -Gender: socially constructed
    •      -To define gender one uses body shape, hair, and clothing, make up, behavioral/linguistic cues, and psychological cues.
    •       -Continium (masculine/adrogynous/feminine)
  43. slang
    • -Informal, non standard
    • -slang expressions often embody attitudes and values of group members
    • -originates in subcultures
    • -used majorly by minorites
  44. social exclusion in girls' peer groups
    • -Girls seek out conflict
    • -talking behnd backs
    • -Members of a girls’ clique sanctioned members of their own group when someone attempted to show herself better than other clique members
    • -Tag-along: person defined in terms of her efforts to affiliate to a particular group without being accepted by the group; a wannabe or an isolate; child defined by her marginal relationship to a peer group
  45. speech community
    • -a group of people who share a set of norms and expectations based around a shared language variety and shared values
    • -large-scale and common exposure
    • -etic not emic
  46. "two cultures" model of gender (and its critiques)
    • -models of female behavior = legacy of a "two cultures" perspective on moral development 
    • -"separate worlds" view of girls and boys' experiences
    •          1. Girls are more ‘prosocial’ than boys
    •           2. male speakers are socialized into a competitive style of discourse, while women are socialized into a more cooperative style of speech. Also emphasizes solidarity and positive politeness, intimacy rather than status
    • 3. “double-voiced” discourse- conflict talk among boys = self-interest; among girls = concern for affiliation, and protecting others’ face
  47. Voices: gendered differences (biological and social reasons)
    • -Male and female vocal cords are identical until puberty.
    • Because of learned patterns.
    •        -Women have… ·
    •             Higher pitch
    •         · Greater pitch range
    •         · Greater pitch variation (i.e. more “emotional)
  48. vowel fronting
    • uw---> iw
    • -"cool"/"kewl", "shoes"/shez
    • -who does this?  Valley girls
  49. vowel raising of /I/ (indexicality o; how it related to group identity at SJSH
    • -Vowel raising: /I/ -> [I] vs [i} ; raising/lowering: refers to position of tongue in vocal tract
    •            - “bit” [bIt] vs. “beat” [bit]
    • -Chicano English = raising and tensing of the mid lax front vowel /I/ to a high front variant [i]
  50. "women's language" - R.Lakoff ( features of; critique of theory)
    • -linguistic features: weak expletives and lexical items
    • ex. charming, divine, rising intonation on declaratives
    • -not all women use WL and not all WL-users are women
    • -expressive intonation: emottionally expressive and not monotonous, empathetic
    • -Critiques of Lakoff
    • 1.Female speech as defective
    • 2.Data or stereotype
    • 3.Assumes single meaning
  51. eyeliner (indexical meaning)
    • -eyeliner = marker of identity 
    • -eyeliner = Power, hard, never smile, rough, brave
    • -chicana gang girl's willingness to fight the longer her eyeliner is
  52. linguistic anthropology (definition)
    • -looking at language in action
    • -how language influences social life
    • -not just the language itself
    • Ex. formal ceremonies, informal
  53. Article: Respect in interethnic Service encounters
    Author: Bailey
  54. Article:Universal Properties of greetings
    Author:Duranti
  55. Article: I'm Like Yeah, but She's All No: Innovative Quotative Markers and Preppy Whiteness
    Author:Bucholtz
  56. Article: The Social Circulation of Media Discourse and the Mediation of Communities
    • Author:Spitulinik
    • -Talked about how linguistic forms/patterns circulate in communities, end up transformed. - Intertextuality: the multiple ways in which a text is entangled with or contains references to other texts.
    • - Considered speech to be a text, speech can be detextualized (taken out of original context) and recontextualized (put back into context).
  57. Article: The African-American Speech Community: Reality and Sociolinguistics
    Author:Morgan
  58. Article: Styling the Worker: Gender and the Commodification of Language in the Globalized Service Economy (
    • Author: Cameron
    • --talks about feminization of speech, even though it’s not always women talking that way; smiling, pitch (indexing sincerity and empathy), pace, volume; thought to make callers more comfortable and likely to share or be return customers
  59. Article: Verbal Art as Performance
    Author: Bauman
  60. Article: Playing the Straight Man: Displaying and Maintaining Male Heterosexuality in Discourse
    Author: Kiesling
  61. linguistic repertoire
    • • multilingual (possibly multidialectal)
    • • monolingual + multidialectal
    • • monodialectal
  62. style
    speech variety used by an individual.changes depending on context and over thelifespan.
  63. style-shifting
    individual changes in speech style
  64. 3 models of style shifting:
    • 1. attention to speech (Labov)
    • 2. accomodation (Giles)
    • 3. Audience design (Bell)
  65. Style varies depending on____
    • Casual---->formal
    • how much attention speakers pay to their speech
  66. Labov: Style change based on ______
    the task

    • -recite lists of words
    • -read a paragraph
    • -engage in Q&A interview
    • -narrative: "danger of death" story 
  67. Style shifting as Accommodation 
    • -In polite converstaion you want to agree wtih/feel comfortable with the other person 
    • -agreement and alignment---->similar style as interlocutor
    • -disagreement----->different style from interlocutor
  68. Style shifting as audience design 
    -speakers adjust their speech depending on the characteristics of their audience

    • Ex. Bell (1977): New Zealand radio announcer
    • -same announcer reading the news on multiple stations, consistently used different pronunciation
    • -not accommodating to audience's own speech patterns. 
  69. Participant Roles (Bell)
    • 1. Speaker
    • 2. Addressee: spoken to
    • 3. Auditor: ratified listeners
    • 4. Overhearer: known but unratified listeners
    • 5. Eavesdropper: unknown listeners
  70. The Cognitively Complex Speaker (Goffman)
    • 1. Animator: who is doing the speaking
    • 2. Author: created the words
    • 3. Principal: whose beliefs are represented
    • 4. Figure: protagonist of the narrative

    • -Can be congruent: I am talking about myself
    • -If not congruent: style shifting to separated self and spoken word
  71. Cognitively Complex Ex: Sam McGee
    • 1. Cremation of Sam McGee
    • -Animator: "Urgelt" (his youtube name)
    • -Author: Robert Service (poet)
    • -Principal: an unnamed miner
    • -Figures: the miner and Sam (or Sam's corpse)
  72. Cooperative principle
    Participants aiming for mutual comprehension & shared understanding
  73. Two problems with the cooperative principle
    • 1. Cross-culturally, some conversational practices are non-cooperative
    • -albur! = mutual comprehension
    • -clowning = insults, not about shared understanding
    • -one-upmanship
    • 2. Cooperation/politeness varies cross-culturally
    • -Ex. Bailey:both parties trying to accommodate to 
  74. What is slang?
    • -youth speech
    • -marks group boundaries & indexes group affiliation
    • -ephermal:rapidly changing
    • -often describes altered states, sex, extremes, intensifiers
    • -Ex.  "Sayin Somthin" is used usually for describing an enjoyable event, place, person, or thing
    • -"That dress you wearin is sayin somthin"
  75. Hegemonic 
    • -unmarked
    • -normal
    • -expected standard
  76. Standard language
    spoken by people with power
  77. Symbolic capital (Bordieu 1982)
    • -referred to as the non-physical resources available to an individual on the basis of honor, prestige or recognition, and serves as value that one holds within a culture
    • -Ex. A war hero, for example, may have symbolic capital in the context of running for political office.
  78. Linguistic Captial
    • -one type of symbolic capital
    • -being able to speak certain speech varieties give access to prestige and respect
    • -not what you have, but what you can perform 
    • 1. Knowing how to speak a certain way =
    • -good job
    • -good house in good neighborhood
    • -access to education
    • -respect from strangers (treated like a potential customer not a potential thief)
  79. Linguistic Profiling Study (John Baugh)
    • 1. called up landlords asking about apartment 
    • 2. Used Chicano, Afro-Am and Standard English 
    • -shows that some companies screen calls on answering machines and don’t return calls of those whose voices seem to identify them as black or Latino.
    • -Some companies instruct their phone clerks to brush aside any chance of a face-to-face appointment to view a sales property or interview for a job based on the sound of a caller’s voice
    • -those who sound white, get the appointment
  80. Mock Ebonics (Rokin & Karn)
    • -are a commonly used stereotype to discriminate and continue to portray Ebonics as an inferior, less intelligent means of communication
    • -fictional and mimic ways of communicating in Ebonics, no semantic or syntax sense
    • -Strategies: the frequent use of "be", use of vulgar language(hoe)
    • -Leroy the 19 year old 3rd grader
  81. "crossing"
    speaking a speech variety of a group you don't belong to
  82. Overt prestige
    • -is the prestige that comes with using the type of language that is valued by nation/larger society
    • -Ex.Speakers who use standard English are therefore considered well educated, intelligent because they are using the “correct” and “best” version of English
    • -In England, the use of R.P
  83. Covert Prestige
    • -Covert: "secret"
    • - is the prestige that comes with using the type of language that is valued within an exclusive community
    • -comes with group membership and oppositional identity
    • -comes from not identifying with the standard language.
    • -Ex.1: AAVE: "slave language" or "heritage language", language with low linguistic capital
    • -Ex.2: Surenas speaking Spanish in school
  84. In which way the syntactic patterns in AAVE differ from those of General American English?
    •  a) in the person/number agreement 
    •  b) in the use of aspectual markers such as be, BIN, finna, etc. which give an additional meaning to the sentence
    •  c) in the multiple negation
  85. AAVE: Syntax (verbs)
    • 1. Deletion of copula: “She is nice"-----> She nice
    • 2. Deletion of auziliary: "You are going"-----> You going
    • 3. Invariant habitual be: "The office be closed on weekends."
    • 4. Perfective done: "He done left."
    • 5. Remote aspect "been": "He been married"(he still is)
    • "I been known his name" (I learned it in the past and still know it"
  86. Defining group identity through erasure
    • 1. in-group homogeneity (sameness)
    • 2. out-group difference
    • 3. out-group sameness
  87. Oppositional identity requires ______
    an idea of a homogeneous group
  88. Identity through erasure
    • 1. In-group sameness: 
    • -erasure of differences between us
    • 2. Out-group difference:
    • -erasure of the similarities we have with them
    • 3. Out-group sameness:
    • -erasure of differences between them
    • ex. Spansih speakers--->"Mexicans
    • ex. Asian immigrants----> "Chinese"
    • ex. Muslims and Sikhs----> terrorists
  89. enlightened exceptionalism 
    • -praising an individual while implicity contrasting them with stereotypical characterstics of their group 
    • -Ex. Whites believe Barak Obama & Colin Powell are the exception..“wellspoken” for blackmen, but maintain that most blacks are ignorant 
  90. What is Language Socialization?
    • -The socialization through language and to use language in socially appropriate ways
    • 1.Socialization to language (ABC's)
    • -communicative competence
    • 2.Socialization through language(learning gender roles)
    • -into cultural competence
  91. Communicative competence
    • 1. knowing how to speak gramatically
    • 2. knowing how to speak appropiately
    • -politeness
    • -when to be formal vs informal
  92. Types of socialization
    • 1. Adult socializing child
    • 2. sometimes child socializing adult
    • 3. peer to peer
  93. Baby-talk ("motherese")
    • -a nonstandard form of speech used by adults in talking to toddlers and infants.
    • -also used with pets
    • -can be used by anyone
    • 1.High pitch
    • 2.Simplisitic speech
    • 3.sound reduplication
    • Ex. Nite-nite instead of goodnigh
  94. Why do mothers and other adults speak this way to babies?
    • 1.Simplified speech------>child learning
    • 2.Sign of affection
    • 3.natural way of interacting
  95. Baby-talk in relation to cultural models of child raising
    • -Baby-talk is part of a larger cultural model
    • -it is not universally applicable to every culture in the world
    • -cultures differ widely in their views on appropriate parenting.
    • Ex. Samoans: Rules restrict parents from speaking with young infants (Ochs)
  96. Maintown, Roadville and Trackton (differences in home environments and how this affects school performance)
    • 1. Maintown
    • -White-collar
    • -mixed middle-class town
    • -books by 6 months old(more critical and educational)
    • -asked children lots of questions(encouraged critical thinking)
    • -prepared for school
    • 2. Roadville
    • -blue-collar
    • -white working class town in textile mill
    • -focused more on letter and number identification
    • -did not link book reading with life events
    • -do well in early grades, but have greater difficulty in higher grades
    • 3.Trackton
    • -blue-collar
    • -African-American rural community
    • -Parents told them oral stories more often than reading them books
    • -good at storytelling
    • -do poorly in early grades
  97. literacy event
    • occasions in which written language is integral to the nature of the participants' interactions and their interpretive processes and strategies
    • -connection between literacy and oral language
  98. Performing Knowledge
    Being able to display your knowledge to others in the proper fashion
  99. Phillips:Warm springs Reservation
    • -extensive studies was done by Philips (1972) in which she examined participant structures and communicative competence with children from the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon
    • -observed that Indian children were reluctant to participate in structures that required large and small-group recitations
    • -However, they were more talkative than non-Indian children in the last two structures when they initiated the interaction with the teacher or were working in student-led group projects
    • -She noted a failure of Warm Springs Indian children to participate verbally in their classrooms because the norms for social performance in their community did not support public linguistic performance
    • -that observation, careful listening, supervised participation and individualized self-correction or testing are modes of learning in the Warm Springs Indian community.
    • -Philips (1972) concluded that this process of acquisition of competence may help to explain a reluctance of Warm Springs Indian children to speak in front of their classmates
    • -Native American Kids = disruptive students
  100. 4 Participant structures
    • 1.Teacher interacts with one student in front of the class
    • -Question/Answer
    • 2.Teacher interacts with students privately 
    • 3.Students work independently
    • 4.students work in unsupervised groups
  101. Warm Springs Students are Good at:
    • 1.unsupervised work
    • 2. group-work with other students
  102. Warm Springs Students problematic behavior
    • 1. reluctant to answer questions when called on
    • 2. don't volunteer answers
    • 3. don't pay attention to/follow teacher's orders 
  103. Warm Springs Students at Home
    • -Authority figures are known family members 
    • -Children learn by watching
    • -children practice in private
  104. What is gossip?
    • -evaluative talk about a person who is not present
    • -information about another person
    • -behind their backs
    • -a negatively valued practice
    • -social activity
    • topics:personal life, character
    • used for:exclusion of target, distribution of personal information
  105. Eder & Enke (1991): Middle school gossip
    • -ages: 10-14 
    • -Girls and Boys
    • Gossip:
    • -talk about a non-present person
    • -involves judgement or moral evaluation
    • -exaggeration
  106. Children's gossip illustrate_____
    group solidarity and group norms
  107. Adolescent gossip illustrates_____
    solving social problems
  108. Listener responses to gossip narratives
    • 1. support for the evaluation
    • 2. affect (emotion stances, ex. "oh my god!"
    • 3. challenges/disagreements
    • *first response is key
    • -if first response is agreeing, nobody else ever challenges
    • -if disagreeing, sometimes the narrator will change their stance
  109. What are you learning from gossiping?
    • 1. in/appropiate behaviors
    • 2. how people will judge you for it
    • 3. how you should judge others
  110. Allison (1991): Indexicatlity of preschooler's obento
    (Socializing Motherhood)
    • -Obento: Boxed lunch made daily by Japenese Moms
    • -for child: mother's affection
    • -for school: competence and maternal identity 
    • -child must eat all, everyone waits till everyone is finished,
    • -relays expectations at early age
    • -mothers must make food appealing and easy to consume
    • -The quality of a mother’s obento became a symbol of the quality of her mothering and her commitment to her child’s educational success.
  111. de jure
    • by law
    • -US has no de jure official language
  112. de facto
    in practice
  113. What is an official language?
    • An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction
    • -the language used by the government
  114. Multilingualism at various levels
    • 1. Macro-social: multiple languages spoken in a society
    • 2. Micro-social:l anguage mixing in interpersonal interactions
    • 3. Individual: linguistic repertoire, speaking vs understanding
  115. Functional domains of a language
    • 1. Government
    • -documents, courts, offices
    • 2. Business
    • -shops, banks
    • 3. Education
    • -primary school, higher education 
    • 4. Media
    • -tv, radio
    • 5. Religion
  116. How do multilingual nations form?
    • 1. migration
    • 2. colonization
    • 3. border changes
  117. Language Contact Classification
    • 1. Safe
    • -new generation is learning it
    • 2. Endangered/Contracting
    • -fewer people or few contexts
    • 3. Moribund
    • -no new learners
  118. Language Contraction
    • -decreased use of a language
    • -fewer speakers
    • -fewer domains
    • -fewer styles
  119. Code switching
    • -one speaker switching between two language varieties in the same interaction
    • -done by balanced bilinguals
    • -not a sign of low language profiency
  120. Types of code switching
    • 1. intra-sentential
    • -words within a sentence
    • 2. inter-sentential
    • -words between sentences
  121. Reasons for code-switching
    • - to be better understood
    • - enhance listener's comprehension
    • -Sometimes the other language has a better word or phrase to express a particular idea.
    • -Sometimes the words we code-switch are the only ones we have or they are more readily available in the other language.
    • -Sometimes we code-switch as a communicative tool, including to exclude someone or to show expertise.
  122. Urciuoli (1991): Puerto Rican and African American working class neighborhood
    • -men code-switch deliberately to construct an nclusive identity
    • -women code-switch accidentally to construct both inclusive and exclusive identity
  123. Thematic code switching
    • • Code-switching based on task or addressee:
    •   • e.g. doing school activity in English, chattingwith friends in Spanish.
    • • Code-switching based on topic:
    •   • e.g. school problems => English
    •   • family problems => Spanish
  124. Quotative Code-Switching
    Describing a conversation in the language in which it occurred.
  125. Emblematic Code-Switching
    • Use of single words in the secondary language.
    • why?
    • -speaking to monolinguals
    • -claiming ethnic identity without the linguistic ability
  126. Hemispheric Localism
    • -North/Geography is an analogy for conflicts in youth's local lives (Nortenos and Surenos)
    • -Race/ethnicity, class, education
    • -North: English; American-raised
    • -South:Spanish; recent immigrant, poor
  127. Nationism
    • symbols of independence
    • -new flag
    • -new name
    • -official language becomes that of citizens
    • Ex. postcolonial USAL spelling symbolically separates American English from British English (theatre---->theater)
  128. Nationalism
    practical issues of of governing the country
  129. Language engineering
    • -expanding a language to be used in every domain
    • -words are deliberately designed
    • -to unite countries
  130. Who is the author?
    On Some Serious Next Millennium Rap Ishhh: Pharoahe Monch, Hip Hop Poetics, and the Internal Rhymes of Internal Affairs
    Alim
  131. Who is the author? Mock Ebonics: Linguistic Racism in Parodies of Ebonics on the Internet
    Ronkin & Karn
  132.  Who is the author? Introduction to Pierre Bourdieu's "Language and Symbolic Power"
    Thompson
  133.  Whos is the author? Language and Race in White Public Space 
    Hill
  134. Who is the author?Language Choice as a Means of Shaping Identity
    Fuller
  135. Who is the author? Language Socialization and Acquisition: Three Developmental Stories and their Implications
     Ochs & Schieffelin
  136. Who is the author? Participant Structures and Communicative Competence: Warm Springs Children in Community and Classroom
    Phillips
  137. Who is the author? Bilingualism en Casa - Chapter 4 of "Growing up Bilingual"
    Zentella
  138. Who is the author? What no Bedtime Story Means
    Heath
  139. 3 developemental stories
    • 1. Kaluhi
    • -mothers rarely leave children alone,
    • -do not gaze into their eyes because they are scared of witchcraft, and hold them facetoface but face them outward, so they can see others and be seen
    • -until they are 18 months, adults do not assume that they are responsive
    • -stress assertiveness
    • -do not respond to child unless speech is correct
    • 2. Anglo-American Middle Class
    • -engage in baby talk
    • -facetoface interaction
    • -respond to correct speech
    • 3. Samoan
    • -children are usually cared for by mothers rather than siblings
    • -Baby talk is never used
    • -do no attempt to intrept a child's sounds, not treated as socially responsive beings, but as psychological states

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