BI 253 Chapter 9

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medic11
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181548
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BI 253 Chapter 9
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2012-11-04 09:06:13
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BI 253
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Ch 9 11-1-12
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  1. What is the most common chem fuel in non-photosynthesizers & primary substrate for energy metabolism?
    Glucose
  2. What must happen to fats & proteins b/f they can be used for energy?
    They must be converted into glucose or intermediates in the glucose metabolism pathway
  3. Each reaction in a metabolic pathway is ___ by a specific ___.
    • Catalyzed
    • Enzyme
  4. What regulates activities of metabolic pathways?
    Key Enzymes
  5. Where does glucose metabolism primarily occur?
    In Mitochondria
  6. What is the chem reaction for glucose metabolism?
    C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + free energy
  7. Where is free energy in glucose metabolism reaction collected?
    ATP molecules
  8. What is ΔG for conversion of glucose?
    -686 kcal/mol
  9. What catabolic process is a partial degradation of sugars or other organic fuel occurring w/o O?
    Fermentation
  10. What 4 pathways are aerobic?
    • Glycolysis
    • Pyruvate Oxidation
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
  11. What are 2 other names for the citric acid cycle?
    • Krebs cycle
    • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
  12. The electron transport chain or respiratory chain is called ___ ___.
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  13. What 2 pathways are anaerobic?
    • Glycolysis
    • Fermentation
  14. Where do glycolysis & fermentation occur in eukaryotes?
    In the cytosol
  15. Where does electron transport chain take place in eukaryotes?
    Inside inner membrane of mitochondria
  16. What 2 pathways occur in the matrix of mitochondria in eukaryotes?
    • Citric acid cycle
    • Pyruvate oxidation
  17. What 3 energy pathways occur in cytoplasm in prokaryotes?
    • Glycolysis
    • Fermentation
    • Citric Acid Cycle
  18. What 2 energy cycles occur on plasma membrane in prokaryotes?
    • Pyruvate Oxidation
    • e⁻ transport chain
  19. Redox reactions transfer energy of ___.
    Electrons
  20. A reaction w/loss of 1 or more e⁻ or H atoms is called an ___ reaction.
    Oxidation
  21. A reaction that gains 1 or more e⁻ or H atoms is called a ___ reaction.
    Reduction
  22. Whenever 1 material is reduced the other is ___.
    Oxidized
  23. An oxidizing agent ___ an e⁻ or H atom.
    Accepts
  24. A reducing agent ___ an e⁻ or H atom.
    Donates
  25. NAD is short for what?
    Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
  26. What is key e⁻ carrier in redox reactions?
    NAD
  27. What do coenzymes carry?
    2 H atoms & their e⁻
  28. What are inorganic ions that bind temporarily to certain enzymes & participate in redox reactions called?
    Cofactors
  29. ____ are carbon-containing molecules required for action of multiple enzymes but not permanently bound to an enzyme.
    Coenzymes
  30. What happens in the reduction of NAD?
    • A hydride ion (H-) is transfered
    • Free proton (H+) left behind
  31. What is the equation for the reduction of NAD?
    NAD⁺ + 2H → NADH + H⁺
  32. What is the equation for oxidation of NAD?
    NADH + H⁺ + 1/2 O₂ → NAD⁺ + H₂O
  33. What is ΔG for oxidation of NAD?
    -52.4 kcal/mol
  34. Glycolysis is an ___ reaction that takes place in the ___.
    • Anaerobic
    • Cytosol
  35. What happens in glycolysis of glucose to pyruvate?
    1 6C glucose → 2 3C pyruvate
  36. What 2 energy carrying molecules are produced when glucose is converted to pyruvate?
    • ADP + Pi → ATP
    • NAD⁺ → NADH + H+
  37. What are 2 stages of of glycolysis?
    • Energy investing reactions using 2 ATP
    • Energy harvesting reactions that produce 4 ATP
  38. Energy investing reactions of glycolysis require what?
    ATP
  39. The 1st 5 reactions in glycolysis require energy & are ___.
    Endergonic
  40. How many molecules of ATP are used in the energy investing step of glycolysis?
    2 ATP
  41. The energy releasing step of glycolysis yields ___ ATP per ___.
    4 ATP per glucose
  42. At the end of glycolysis there is a net gain of what 3 things & how much?
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH + H⁺
    • 2 pyruvate molecules
  43. What process follows glycolysis when O₂ is present?
    Cellular Respiration
  44. What process follows glycolysis when there is no O₂ available?
    Fermentation
  45. In pyruvate oxidation, what is produced for each 2 pyruvate molecules?
    • 2 acetyl CoA
    • 2 NADH + H⁺
    • 2 CO₂
  46. Of the products of pyruvate oxidation, what enters the Krebs Cycle?
    2 Molecules of Acetyl CoA
  47. Where does the Krebs Cycle take place & in how many steps?
    8 steps in mitochondrial matrix
  48. For each Acetyl CoA that goes thru Krebs cycle what is produced?
    • 3 NADH + H⁺
    • 1 FADH₂
    • 1 ATP
    • 2 CO₂
  49. What is the total NADH + H⁺, FADH₂, ATP & CO₂ produced by the Krebs Cycle?
    • 6 NADH + H⁺
    • 2 FADH₂
    • 2 ATP
    • 4 CO₂
  50. Of all the products of the Kreb's Cycle, which ones enter the e⁻ transport chain?
    All NADH + H⁺ & FADH₂
  51. What process oxidizes carrier molecules to make ATP?
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  52. Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
    Inner Mitochondrial Membrane (cristae)
  53. What are 2 stages of oxidative phosphorylation?
    • e⁻ transport chain
    • Chemiosmosis
  54. What stage of cellular reps. produces most ATP & how much?
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • 32 ATP
  55. A specific proton channel that allows protons to cross the hydrophobic bilayer of inner mitochondrial membrane by simple diffusion is called ___ ___.
    ATP Synthase
  56. What are 2 products of oxidative phosphorylation?
    • ATP
    • H₂O
  57. After NADH+H⁺ & FADH₂ are oxidized in oxidative phosphorylation, the e⁻ go where?
    Electron Transport Chain
  58. After NADH+H⁺ & FADH₂ are oxidized in oxidative phosphorylation, the protons do what?
    Create proton motive force
  59. After oxidative phosphorylation, protons est a concentration & electromechanical gradient called ___ ___ ___.
    Proton Motive Force
  60. Energy created by Proton Motive Force is used to what?
    Phosphorylate ADP to generate ATP via ATP synthase
  61. What happens to NAD+ & FAD after they go thru oxidative phosphorylation?
    They are recycled
  62. What step follows Glycolysis when there is no O₂ present?
    Fermentation
  63. What happens in fermentation?
    Pyruvate molecules → Lactic acid or ethanol
  64. What are net gains fr fermentation?
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NAD
    • Lactic Acid or Ethanol
    • CO₂
  65. What is the regulatory mechanism for glycolysis?
    Allosteric enzyme → Phosphofructokinase
  66. How do ATP levels effect phosphofructokinase?
    • ↑ ATP = Enzyme inactive
    • ↑ AMP & ADP causes ↓ ATP = Enzyme active
  67. What allosteric enzyme is the main ctrl point for Kreb's Cycle?
    Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  68. How does Isocitrate Dehydrogenase work?
    Converts isocitrate → a-ketogluterate causing cycle to continue
  69. What inhibits Isocitrate Dehydrogenase?
    NADD + H⁺ & ATP
  70. What activates Isocitrate Dehydrogenase?
    NAD+ & ADP
  71. What is 2nd ctrl point for Kreb's Cycle & how does it work?
    Acetyl CoA - If cycle shuts down bld up of citrate diverts Acetyl CoA to synthesis of fatty acid for storage
  72. What is the final e⁻ acceptor aft ETC?
    O₂
  73. What does O₃ do in the ETC?
    It binds w/free e⁻ to keep them fr zipping around the body causing problems & make H₂O

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