What are the three joint classifications by function (degree of movement)? Diarthroses, amphiarthroses and synarthroses
What is diarthroses?
A joint classification of function. Freely moveable joints like the shoulder, knew, hip, elbow, interphalangeal, tarsal and carpal joints
What is amphiarthroses?
A joint classification of function. Slightly moveable joints like intervertebral discs, costosternal joints and pubic symphysis
What is synarthroses?
A joint classification of function. Joints with little or no movement like skull sutures, mental symphysis, teeth in sockets and first costosternal joint
What are the three joint classifications by structure?
Synovial joints, fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints
What are synovial joints?
Bones separated by a joint cavity, lubricated by synovial fluid and enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule with reinforcing ligaments. EX: shoulder, hip, elbow, knew, carpal, interphalangeal joints
What are fibrous joints?
Bones held together by collagneous fibers extending from the matrix of one bone into the matrix of the next, no joint cavity. EX: skull sutures, gomphosis (teeth) and syndesmosis
What are cartilaginous joints?
Bones held together by cartilage. No joint cavity. EX: epiphyseal plates of long bones, costosternal joints, pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs
Symphysis (ex: and structural joint classification)
Synchondrosis ( ex: and structural joint classification)
What is the articular capsule in a synovial joint?
Two layered, surrounds both articular cartilages and the space between them. External layer is dense irregular CT and is continual with the periosteum. Inner layer is synovial membrane made of loose CT and covers everywhere not covered by articular cartilage
What is the joint cavity in a synovial joint?
The potential space within the joint capsule and articular cartilage
What is the synovial fluid in a synovial joint?
A small amount of slippery fluid occupying all free space in the joint capsule. Formed by filtration of blood flowing thru capillaries in the synovial membrane. It becomes less viscous as joint activity increases
What are the six types of synovial joints?
Plane joints, hinge joints, pivot joints, condyloid joints, saddle joints and ball-and-socket joints
What are plane joints?
Articular surfaces are flat and allow short slipping or gliding movements like the intercarpal and intertarsal joints
What are hinge joints?
A cylindrical projection of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface of another. Movement resembles a door hinge like in the elbow joint, ulna and humerus and interphalangeal joints
What are pivot joints?
Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a ring formed by another bone or by ligaments of that bone like in the proximal radioulnar joint and atlas-axis joint
What are condyloid joints?
Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression on another like in the radiocarpal joints and metacarpophalangeal joints
What are saddle joints?
Each articular surface has convex and concave areas. Each articular surface is saddle-shaped like in the carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs
What are ball-and-socket joints?
Spherical or semi-spherical head of one bone articulates with the cuplike socket of another. They allow for much freedom of motion like in the shoulder and hip joints.
What classification is the knee joint?
Largest of most complex diarthrosis and primarily a hinge joint but when flexed its capable of slight rotation and lateral gliding
What are the three joints of the knee?
Patellofemoral joint, medial and lateral tibiofermoral joints
Which parts of the knee joint are covered by capsule?
The medial, lateral and posterior sides
What are bursae?
Bags of lubricant, fibrous membrane bags filled with synovial fluid. Often found where bones, muscles, tendons or ligaments rub together. Found where bones, muscles, tendons or ligaments rub together.
What are menisci?
Discs of fibrocartilage which improve the fit between bone ends, thus stabilizing the joint. Found in the knee, jaw and sternoclavicular joint
What is the ACL?
Anterior cruciate ligament. It connects the anterior intercondyle area of the tibia to the medial side of the lateral femoral condyle and prevents forward sliding of the tibia and hyperextension of the knee
What is the PCL?
Posterior cruciate ligament. It connects the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the lateral side of the medial femoral condyle. Prevents backward displacement of the tibia or forward sliding of the femur.
What is the fibular collateral ligament?
Extends from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula. Prevents excessive rotation.
What is the tibial collateral ligament?
Connects medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of the tibial shaft and is also fused to the medial meniscus. Prevents excessive rotation.