Glossary terms chapter 12

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Glossary terms chapter 12
2012-11-07 21:54:08
glossary terms chapter 12

grade 9 science textbook chapter 12 glossary terms
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  1. Direct current (DC)
    • Current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only one direction.
    • Electrons move from negative to positive terminal.
  2. Alternating current (AC)
    Current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit.
  3. Transformer
    • An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of an alternating current.
    • Do not work with direct current.
  4. Circuit breaker
    A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets.
  5. Fuse
    A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker it is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets.
  6. Electrical power
    The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy.
  7. Watt (W)
    A unit of electrical power.
  8. Kilowatt (kW)
    • A practical unit of electrical power.
    • 1 kW = 1000 W
  9. Electrical energy
    • The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; is determined by multiplying its power rating by the length of time it is used.
    • Energy = rate x time
  10. Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
    The practical unit of electrical energy.
  11. EnerGuide label
    A label thhat gives details about how much energy an appliance use in one year of normal use.
  12. Smart meter
    A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically.
  13. Time of use pricing
    • A system of pricing in which the cost of each kWh of energy used is different at different times of the day.
    • It is broken down into off-peak, mid-peak, and on-peak times for pricing.
  14. Phantom load
    • The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off
    • ex.  a radio that is turned off, but left plugged in all day, will still consume energy.
    • the easiest way
  15. Efficiency
    • The ratio of useful energy output, to total energy input, expressed as a percentage.
    • energy input is its power multiplied by the time it is on.
    • Percent efficiency = Eout/Ein x 100
  16. Base load
    • The continuous minimum demand for electrical power.
    • The minimum amount of electrical power needed in ontario is 12 000 MW.
    • 1 MW = 106W
    • Base load is generated mainly by hydroelectric and nuclear generating stations.
  17. Hydroelectric power generation
    • The generation of electrical power using a source of moving water
    • ex. niagra falls
  18. Intermediate load
    A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load and is met by burning coals and natural gasses.
  19. Peak load
    The greatest demand for electricity which is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas
  20. Renewable energy source
    • A source of energy that can be replaced in a relitively brief period of time.
    • eg. solar energy
  21. Non-renewable energy source
    • A source of energy that can not be replaced as quickly as it is used.
    • eg. coal
  22. Solar energy
    • Energy that is directly converted from the energy of the sun into electricity.
    • eg. solar pannels
  23. Photovoltiac effect
    The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light
  24. Biomass energy
    • Biomass Energy is defined by any organic materials that can be burned and used as a source of fuel.
    • ex. wood, (manure = biogas)