Pharm-Post MT

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Pharm-Post MT
2012-12-03 12:33:57
Post MT

Post MT
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  1. Thiazides
    • -drug used to treat mild congestive heart failure
    • -decrease NaCl reabsorption in kidneys -> decrease water retention and decrease blood volume -> increase urination
    • -decrease BP, pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema
    • -Toxicity: decreased K+ (b/c Na+ and K+ channel)
  2. Captopril
    • -ACE inhibitor to treat Congestive Heat Failure
    • -decrease angiotensin -> decrease NE and aldsterone (salt and water retention)
    • -decrease bradykinin 0> vasodilation
    • --> decrease BP
    • -Toxicity: severe hypotension, cough, angioedema
  3. Losartan
    • AT1 Antagonist to treat Congestive heart failure
    • -bloke AT1 receptor -> vasodilation -> decrease BP
    • -Indication: Px who can't tolerate ACE inhibitors
    • -Toxicity: severe hypotension
  4. Glucocorticoids
    • decrease inflammation and overactive immune system by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and consequently eicosanoid production (decrease neutrophil and monocytes, processing centers, eicosanoids) -> immune compromised and underlying disease is still there
    • -used to treat uveitis, allergic conjunctivitis
    • -ie. hydrocortisone, prednisone, dexamethasone
  5. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
    • inhibit COX leading to decrease in eicosanoids
    • -reliefs pain and tissue damage (inflammation, pain and fever decreased)
  6. Aspirin
    • inhibits COX1 and COX2 leading to decrease of prostaglandins (decreases fever) and thromboxanes (increases bleeding)
    • -used to decrease pain, fever, inflammation and thrombus formation
    • -no tolerance, no dependency, no CNS depression, BUT do NOT use in children (Reye's Syndrome)
  7. Celecoxib
    • COX-2 inhibitor -> analgesia and decreases inflammation without GI side effects
    • -no effect on thromboxane and platelets (no clot formation and no platelet aggregation)
    • -toxicity: MI, stroke
  8. Acetaminophen
    • decreases prostaglandin synthesis in CNS
    • -toxicity: hepatotoxicity (liver failure)
  9. Prednisone
    short-acting glucocorticoid that is used to treat CHRONIC inflammation ie. autoimmune disease
  10. Dexamethasone
    long-acting glucocorticoid that is used to treat very high acute inflammation ie. septic shock, brain edema
  11. Digoxin
    • drug for heart failure (Na/K ATPase blocker)
    • -increases cardiac contractility
    • -use in combo with diuretics and ACEi
  12. Metoprolol
    • drug for heart failure
    • -BB blocker
    • -decreases heart rate AND renein release
    • -do NOT use in seniors
  13. Hydralazine
    • drug for heart failure
    • -vasodilator
    • -releases NO -> smooth muscle contraction and reduces edema and cardiac size
  14. Bethanechol and carbachol
    • direct-acting cholinergic receptor agonist -> increases PNS repsonse
    • -mimics ACh, resistant to Achase
  15. Neostigmine
    • indirect acintg reversible AChase inhibitor
    • -> increases PNS function
    • -treats Myasthenia gravis (reversal of neuromusclar blockage)
  16. Pilocarpine
    • direct-acting muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist -> increases PNS response
    • -mimics ACh
    • -causes contraction of ciliary body -> decreases IOP (used for emergency Tx of glaucoma)
    • -Toxicity: CNS disturbances, sweating, salivation
  17. Isofluorophate
    • irrevesible indirect acting (covalently phophorylate AChase)
    • -causes long-lasting miosis
    • -for longer Tx of glaucoma
  18. Physostigmine
    • indirect acting cholinergic (inactivates AChase) -> contraction of ciliary body
    • -can enter CNS -> convulsions
    • -Tx for glaucoma, atropine poisoning
  19. Atropine
    • cholinergic anatagonist (competitively binds AChR) -> SNS active
    • -long acting mydriasys and cycloglegia
    • -toxicity: CNS effects, sweating, salivation, increased HR, hallucinations, delirium, coma
  20. Tropicamide
    • cholinergic antagonist
    • -shorter competitive binding AChR -> SNS active
    • -mydriasis and cycloplegia
  21. Phenylephrine
    • selective a1 agonist only
    • -vasoconstriction -> increases BP
    • -used for mydriasis (without cycloplegia), decreases conj injection and synechiae
  22. Dopamine and dobutamine
    • B1 agonist -> SNS
    • heart (HR and contractility increase) and kidneys (GFR increases)
    • -used for kidney failure
  23. Albuterol
    • B2 agonist -> SNS stimulation
    • -bronchodilator
    • -used for asthma
  24. Timolol
    • Beta blocker
    • -decreases AH production -> decreases IOP
    • -Tx for glaucoma
  25. Metoprolol
    • B1 blocker
    • -decreases heart contractility, slows conduction
    • -Tx for HTN
  26. Propanolol
    • non-selective B blocker ->decreases SNS (slows SA node pulse and AV conduction) -> decreases HR, constricts bronchioles, decreases GFR
    • -worsens asthma, hypglycemia in DN
    • -Tx for HTN, angina, arrhythmia, post-MI
  27. Quinidine
    • Na+ channel blocker
    • -to treat all types of chronic arrhythmias
    • -toxicity: cannot be used with digoxin (a Na/K ATPase inhibito that increases HR) b/c decreases renal clearance
  28. Lidocaine
    • Na+ channel blocker
    • -treat acute ventricular arrhythmias
    • -normal HR
    • -toxicity: CNS drowsiness, confusion, tremor, convulsions
  29. Amiodarone
    • K+ channel blockers -> slows repolarization
    • -increases refractory period and decrease automaticity of ischemic cells in ventricles
    • -Tx for tachyarrhythmias
  30. Verapamil
    • Ca2+ chanel blocker
    • -decreases contraction (and SA impulse and AV conduction separately)
    • -Tx for tachyarrhythmias
  31. Donepezil
    • Alleviates Alzheimer disease
    • AChase inhibitor
    • Side effects: nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, vomitting, cramps, fatigue, appetite loss
  32. Selegiline
    • Alleviates Parkinson's Sxs
    • MAO-B inhibitor (dopamine metabolism is decreased)
    • Side effects: Dyskinesia, hallucinations, hypotension
  33. Levodopa
    • Alleviates Parkinson's Sxs
    • mimics dopamine, crosses blood brain barrier
    • Side effects: dyskinesia, anxiety, psychoses, nausea, vomitting, hypotension
  34. Benztropine
    • Alleviates Parkinson's Sxs
    • Antimuscarinc drug (decreases cholinergic activity of subtantia nigra -> decreases GABA)
    • Side effects: drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, peripheral side effects
  35. Chlorpromazine
    • Typical nueroleptic (Phenothiazine class) used to treat Schizophrenia
    • -decreases dopamine levels (increases attn, pleasure and cognition while decreasing hallucinations)
    • -Side effects: Parkinsonian Sxs
  36. Haloperidol
    • Typical nueroleptic (Butyrophenone class) used to treat Schizophrenia-decreases dopamine levels (increases attn, pleasure and cognition while decreasing hallucinations)
    • Side effects: Parkinsonian Sxs
  37. Clozapine
    • Atypical nueroleptic used to treat
    • Schizophrenia-decreases dopamine levels (increases attn, pleasure and  cognition while decreasing hallucinations)
    • Side effects: Hypotension, weight gain