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Blood urea nitrogen BUN
waste producted produced in the _____ and excreted by the _____.
High values indicate poor ____ function.
Increased BUN can result from dehydration, _________, high-protein diets, and strenuous exercise.
Decreased in BUN values can result from liver _____ or damage.
Decreased in BUN normally occur in second and ____ trimesters of pregnancy.
- Heart failure
Waste product is _____ from______ breakdown.
High values with BUN may indicate ____ problems
Test are semi quantitative and some variations exist from one ____ to the another on how tests are _____.
Normally no ____ or orobilinogen is present in urine.
These are pigments that are cleared by the _____.
In _____ or gallbladder disease, bilirubin may appear in urine.
Normally no blood in _____.
Blood can indicate infection, _____, trauma, or ____ from a bladder or kidney tumor.
Test indicate it is hemolyzed (dissolved blood) or ________(intact RBC).
Rarely a muscle injury cause _____ to appear in urine which causes a _____ result
- Kidney stones
- False positive
A positive glucose occurs in ______
Small number of people with normal blood glucose have glucose in their _____.
Any glucose in urine would raise possibility of ______ or glucose intolerance
Leukocytes are WBCs or pus cells.
Wbc in urine suggest urinary treact ____
Usually indicate _____ tract infection
Measures ____ acidity
Normally no ____ detectable
Presence of protein indicates kidney damage, _____ in the urine or an infection.
Cerain diseases require more sensitive test for protein called _____ micro albumin to screen for early damage to kidneys.
Microscope exam of ____ that is spun in centrifuge.
Mucous and squamous cells are _____ seen
Specific gravity SG
measures how diluted _____ is.
Water would have SG of 1
Most urine I'd 1.010 but varies depending on ______levels of patient.