Geography.exam

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Geography.exam
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2012-11-06 14:47:05
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  1. Latin America region highest GNI PPP/Capita
    Middle America 
  2. latifundia
    • large estates with a strong commercial orientation. Own land
    • for prestige and power
  3. Minifundia
    • smaller holdings with a strong subsistence
    • component. People lack money to purchase large and fertile properties 
  4. Caliente
    bananas, sugar, rice. nearest sea level
  5. Templada
    coffee, corn
  6. Fria
    Wheat, potatoes
  7. Helada
    Livestock, timber. highest elevation
  8. Three major civilizations that existed in Latin
    America prior to or concurrent with European exploration and colonization?
    Maya, Inca, Aztec
  9. Countries involved in the Treat of Tortesillas and the geographic areas of Latin America involved
    Spain and Portugal, Brazil = Portugal; Spain = everywhere else
  10. Reasons for the demographic collapse in Latin
    America after European discovery and colonization
    war, disease, famine
  11. counties of Latin America that have an abundance
    of oil and its exploitation, use, and/or exportation constitutes a major component to their economies
    Mexico and Venezuela
  12. Identify the racial/ethnic group that comprises
    the largest percentage of the population for all of Latin America
    Mestizo
  13. large indigenous (Amerindian) populations
    Central America, Amazon Basin, Andes Mountains
  14. Identify the general population growth characteristics of Latin America
    relatively high, but declining
  15. reason for the rapid growth of
    urban areas
    large rural-to-urban migration
  16. two dominant languages, dominant religion 
    Spanish and Portuguese, Roman Catholicism
  17. Identify the major pockets of development in
    Latin America and the major urban areas associated within each
    • Northern Mexico - Monterrey; maquiladora
    • Central Mexico -Mexico City;
    • Brazil - Sao Paulo/Rio de Janeiro;
    • Argentina/Uruguay - Buenos Aires/Montevideo
  18. examples of tertiary sector activity that are
    becoming increasingly important to some places in the Caribbean
    off-shore banking and tourism
  19. Identify the general development characteristics
    of Lain America and the Caribbean
    • economic and social measures are generally lower
    • particularly social measures vs developed worlds;  economic and social measures are generally better (especially economic measures) vs. Underdeveloped World;   economic and social measures can vary widely within a given country - example: economic/social measures of development are generally better in and around Rio de Janeiro/Sao Paulo than in the rest of Brazil
  20. country or territory of the Middle East and
    North Africa region that has the highest Rate of Natural Increase 
    palestinian
  21. Identify the predominant type of climate found
    in the region
    desert
  22. of the major deserts and their general location
    Sahara - North Africa; Arabian - Middle East
  23. reasons for why water is becoming a critical
    resource in the Middle East and North Africa region that may result in conflict in the future
    • 1) rapid population growth;
    • 2) waterusage/agricultural land mismanagement;
    • 3) environmental degradation
    • (desertification, salinization, erosion, etc.)
  24. the area where the domestication of plants (and
    possibly some animals) are believed to have first occurred
    Mesopotamia
  25. Identify the European countries that colonized
    most of the region and the areas it colonized
    • 1) France - North Africa; Middle East - Syria, Lebanon;
    • 2) United Kingdom (British) - Egypt and Sudan in North Africa; rest of Middle East
  26. the general population growth characteristics of
    the Middle East and North Africa
    • rapid population growth, relatively high
    • fertility rates, large percentage of population < 15 years, short doubling times
  27. identify the major environmental reason for the
    high urbanization rates found throughout the region
    arid (desert) climate
  28. three major religions that
    originated in the Middle East and North Africa region
    Judaism, Christianity, Islam orginated in the Arabian Peninsula around Mecca; Mohammed was the founder
  29. the Five Pillars of Islam
    • 1) Alms giving (charity);
    • 2) Profession of faith;
    • 3) Prayer (five times daily - always facing Mecca);
    • 4) Fasting during the month of Ramadan;
    • 5) Pilgrimage to Mecca
  30. two physical and three cultural/human
    characteristics that help define Middle East and North Africa as a distinct region
    • desert climate, crossroads location; dominant
    • ethnicity - Arabs, dominant language - Arabic, dominant religion - Islam
  31. Identify and understand the basic historical
    issues underlying the current tensions/conflict between Israel and Arab 
    • Zionist movement emerges in late 1800s 
    • begins process of soliciting help from gov. (the British) in
    • their efforts to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine (now Israel); Balfour Declaration by British government in 1917 helps legitimize Zionist movement
    • efforts in establishing Jewish homeland; after Balfour Declaration and World
    • War I, and with Palestine now under British control, Jews begin process of
    • migration and settlement in Palestine; After World War II, British cede control
    • of Palestine, and fighting breaks out between Palestinian Arabs and Jews;
    • United Nations intervenes and offers partition plan.  Jews accept and form
    • nation-state of Israel; Palestinian Arabs refuse; war ensues and the
    • Middle-East has been a source of tension/conflict between Israel and
    • neighboring Arab countries (as well as from Palestinian Arabs) since
  32.  the territories taken by Israel from surrounding countries in the Six-Day war of 1967
    • Gaza Strip, West Bank, Sinai Peninsula, Golan
    • Heights
  33. the territories that are now (largely) under the
    control of the Palestinian Authority. the territory returned as part of a peace agreement. and the territory still under complete Israeli control
    Gaza Strip, parts of West Bank. Sinai Peninsula - given back to Egypt. Golan Heights - used to be controlled by Syria
  34. the major pockets of development in the Middle
    East and North Africa and the major urban areas associated within each
    • Northwest Africa (Maghreb) - Rabat/Algiers/Tunis;
    • Nile River Valley (Egypt) - Cairo;
    • Eastern Mediterranean (Levant) - Beirut/Tel Aviv;
    • Turkey - Istanbul/Ankara;
    • Persian Gulf (Oil States) - Riyadh/Abu Dhabi/Baghdad/Tehran
  35. two countries that have achieved significant
    economic growth and development due to secondary sector (manufacturing) activity
    Turkey and Israel
  36. Identify the general development characteristics
    of the Middle East and North Africa
    • economic and social measures are generally lower
    • vs. Developed World, ex. social measures.  the Oil States economic measures are better vs. Underdeveloped World. 
    •  only a few countries have social measures that are generally better vs. Underdeveloped World (examples - Israel and
    • Turkey).  Additionally, economic and social measures can not only vary widely within a country (example: Algeria) but also between countries as well -
    • example: economic/social measures of development are generally better in Israel
    • and Turkey than those found in Yemen and Sudan
  37. the predominant landform type covering most of
    the Sub-Saharan Africa region
    plateaus
  38. Rift Valley is located and how it was formed
    eastern africa. plate tectonics
  39. the major landforms/physical features created by
    rift valley
    • Lake Tanganyika, Lake Nyasa, Lake Victoria,
    • Eastern Highlands, Red Sea, Jordan River Valley
  40. the four vegetation belts that cover Sub-Saharan
    Africa and their general location
    • 1) Tropical rain forests - surround the equator;
    • 2) Tropical savannas - north and south of tropical rain forests;
    • 3) Temperategrasslands (steppes) - north and south of tropical savannas;
    • 4) desert -Kalahari desert in Southwest Africa
  41. general features of the Sahel region (Northern
    temperate grasslands); focus attention on the causes of desertification found in the Sahel region
    • disruptions in normal weather patterns; poor
    • water/land management in cultivation of crops; overgrazing of grasslands as a result of governments restricting movement of pastoral nomads
  42. Identify some of the pest-carrying
    diseases/health problems that are endemic (widespread) throughout the region as well as the pest associated with each
    • Malaria, Yellow Fever - mosquito; Sleeping
    • Sickness - tsetse fly; Schistosomiasis - parasite from snails; River Blindness- worms; Diarrhea - bacteria
  43. HIV/AIDS is widespread and identify the general
    areas of Sub-Saharan Africa where its impact has been greatest
    Southern and Eastern Africa
  44. two countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that were
    never colonized by Europeans
    Liberia and Ethiopia
  45. the general population growth characteristics of
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    • rapid population growth, relatively high
    • fertility rates, large percentage of population < 15 years, short doubling times
  46. identify the basic push and pull factors affecting rural-to-urban and out-migration patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • poor economic conditions in rural areas, civil
    • war/strife] and pull factors [better economic conditions in urban areas or in other countries; haven from war and/or
    • political repression
  47. the reasons for why population growth rates in
    many Sub-Saharan Africa countries are high.  Focus principally on the cultural/economic factors for why people still want to have large families
    • culturally - group able to sustain cultural
    • identity and/or political dominance; economically - larger families able to work/produce more than smaller families in subsistence agricultural societies
  48. the general areas where Islam, Christianity, and
    animism predominate
    • Islam - Western and Eastern Africa, principally
    • along the coasts; Christianity and animism - everywhere else
  49. the reasons for why the "feminization of
    poverty" (many women live in poverty) exists throughout Sub-Saharan Africa
    • male dominated societies that restrict women's
    • ability to participate in economic/political arenas; lack of educational opportunities;  marrying young and having large families; lack of government programs aimed at addressing women's issues, particularly health].
  50.  the
    general development characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Both economic and social measures are generally
    • the lowest found in the entire world.  Only a handful of countries have
    • economic and social measure of development that may compare favorably with some
    • other countries in the Underdeveloped World (Examples - Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya);
    • and only one country has social and economic measures that are similar to those
    • found in the Developed World - South Africa.  As a whole, Sub-Saharan
    • Africa is the least developed region in the world
  51. Know the features associated with the climate of
    Monsoon Asia.  Focus attention on the seasonal variation - what creates heavy rains during the summer months and a dry period during the winter months
    • Change in atmospheric pressure systems and
    • direction of the winds.  Summer months, high pressure areas over Indian
    • Ocean; lower pressure areas over lands; winds blow from ocean towards land
    • bringing heavy rains.  During Winter months, high pressure areas over land;
    • lower pressure areas over Indian Ocean; winds blow from land towards ocean
    • creating dry season
  52. Identify the names of the major rivers that form
    the primary alluvial plains in each sub-region of Monsoon Asia
    • South Asia - Indus and Ganges Rivers; Southeast
    • Asia - Mekong and Irrawaddy Rivers; East Asia - Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
  53. the country that has the largest population in
    the world, the second largest population in the world. three others that have large, dense populations
    china, india. Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia
  54. Identify the general areas where population
    densities are greatest
    • Indo-Gangetic plain of Pakistan and Northern
    • India; Alluvial delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Rivers in Bangladesh; Eastern China along the Yangtze and
    • Yellow River alluvial plains and along the coast; Irrawaddy, Mekong, Chao Phraya, and Red River alluvial plains in mainland Southeast Asia; Java in island portion of Southeast Asia
  55. two countries that were formed out of British
    India
    India and Pakistan
  56. the reason for why British India was partitioned
    prior to India's independence
    • largely done to prevent interval power disputes
    • between Hindus and Muslims; political boundaries were drawn primarily along
    • religious lines
  57. the general population growth characteristics of
    South Asia
    • rapid population growth, relatively high
    • fertility rates, large percentage of population < 15 years, short doubling
    • times
  58.  identify
    some of the primary migration patterns found in Monsoon Asia
    • out-migration from South Asia to Persian Gulf,
    • Europe, and North America; migration from China to countries of Southeast Asia;
    • internal migration within Indonesia from densely population Java to less populated island
  59. some of the reasons for why India has had
    trouble in limiting population growth
    • lack of funds for clinics/family planning
    • centers; children seen as an asset in a still largely agrarian-based society (in
    • the form of both economic sustenance and social safety net); difficulty in
    • communicating benefits of smaller families due to diversity of languages spoken
    • throughout India
  60. the areas of South Asia where Islam, Hinduism,
    Buddhism, predominate
    • Islam = Pakistan, Bangladesh;
    • India = Hinduism;
    • Buddhism = Sri Lanka
  61. the basic characteristics of the caste system in
    India
    the belief in reincarnation
  62. Identify the major pockets of development in
    South Asia and the major urban areas associated with each
    • 1) Northern India - Delhi;
    • 2) Northwest India -Mumbai (Bombay);
    • 3) Indus River - Karachi/Islamabad;
    • 4) South India -Bangalore;
    • 5) Eastern India - Kolkata (Calcutta)
  63. the name of the state in India where many social
    measures of development are compare favorably with those found in the Developed World, as well as those social measures of development
    • kerala, Life expectancy, Literacy rates, Infant
    • Mortality Rates, and Total Fertility Rates
  64. the general development characteristics of South
    Asia
    • Both economic and social measures are some of
    • the lowest found in the entire world, many of them comparable to those found in
    • Sub-Saharan Africa.  Only one country - Sri Lanka - has economic and social measure of development better than  Underdeveloped World.  countries of South
    • Asia, both economic and social measures of development are generally higher in
    • the pockets of development than in the rest of the region.  As a whole,
    • only Sub-Saharan Africa has lower social and economic measures of development
    • than South Asia
  65. the territory that was ceded to the British by
    China as a result of the "Opium Wars"
    hong kong
  66. Know what happened between the Nationalists and
    Communists after World War II. Understand that this conflict led to there being
    two China's
    • Nationalists fled mainland China and establish
    • government - Republic of China - in Taiwan; Communists established People's
    • Republic of China for mainland China
  67. identify the leader associated with the
    Communists and the People's Republic of China and the leader that established the Republic of
    China in Taiwan
    Mao Zedong

    Chiang Kai-shek
  68. Identify the general population growth
    characteristics of East Asia
    beginning to stabilize
  69. identify the major internal migration patterns
    in China
    • massive rural-to-urban migration as a result of
    • rapid industrialization; migration of ethnic Han Chinese to areas where sizeable non-Han Chinese reside - Tibet and Northwest China
  70. Identify two major languages spoken in China
    Mandarin and Cantonese
  71. the major pockets of development in East Asia
    and the major urban areas associated with each
    • 1) North China - Beijing; 2) Central China -
    • Shanghai; 3) Southern China - Hong Kong; 4) Taiwan - Taipei; South Korea -
    • Seoul
  72. the general development characteristics of East
    Asia
    • economic and social measures are generally lower
    • than those found in the Developed World, particularly social
    • measures; However, economic and social measures are generally better
    • (especially economic measures) than those found in the other regions of the
    • Underdeveloped World.  Additionally, some countries economic and social
    • measures are comparable to those found in the Developed World - examples:
    • Taiwan and South Korea.  As a whole, East Asia (along with
    • some places in Latin America and Southeast Asia) has the best economic and
    • social measures found in the Underdeveloped World
  73. Identify the only country of Southeast Asia
    never to become a European colony
    thailand
  74. the general population growth characteristics of
    Southeast Asia
    • population growth rate relatively high, but
    • beginning to stabilize in some countries
  75. Know what religion predominates in the mainland
    and island sub-regions of Southeast Asia
    Mainland = Buddhism; Islands = Islam
  76. and the country where Christianity is the predominant
    religion

    Also, know which country is the largest Muslim country in the
    world
    Indonesia

    Philippines
  77. There are a host of countries in East and Southeast Asia that
    claim a cluster of small islands in the South China Sea.  Identify the
    name of this cluster of islands 

    the countries that claim this cluster of islands

    and the reason for the claims on this cluster of islands by
    said countries 
    Spratly Islands

    China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, and the Philippines

    oil and

    gas deposits
  78. Identify the environmental problems associated
    with deforestation in Southeast Asia
    • 1) loss of species habitats; 2) soil erosion; 3)
    • flooding; 4) mudslides; 5) air pollution from forest fires].
  79. Identify the major pockets of development in
    Southeast Asia and the major urban areas associated with each
    • 1) Singapore - Singapore; 2) Malaysia - Kuala
    • Lumpur; 3) Central Thailand - Bangkok; Java Island (Indonesia) - Jakarta
  80. Identify the general development characteristics
    of Southeast Asia
    • economic and social measures are generally lower
    • than those found in the Developed World, particularly social measures; 
    • However, economic and social measures are generally better (especially economic
    • measures) than those found in the other regions of the Underdeveloped
    • World;  Some countries (such as Singapore and Malaysia) have economic and
    • social measures that compare favorably with the Developed World. 
    • Additionally, economic and social measures can vary widely from country to
    • country (example: Thailand versus Laos) as well as within a given country -
    • example: economic/social measures of development are generally better in and
    • around Jakarta than in the rest of Indonesia
  81. El Nino 
    widespread drought attributed to the warming of the pacific ocean waters
  82. Chokepoint 
    A strategic narrow passageway on land or sea that may be closed off by force or threat of force
  83. Apartheid
    The republic of South Africas former official policy of "seperate development of the races," designed to ensure the racial integrity and political supremecy of the white minority
  84. archipelago
    A chain or group of islands
  85. Caste
    The hierarchy in the hindu religion thay determines a person's social rank. established by birth. can't be changed
  86. desertification
    expansion of a desert brought about changing environmental conditions or unwise human use. 
  87. digital divide
    divide between countries that are techology innovators and users and the majoprity of nations that have kuittke ability to create, purchase, or use new technologies
  88. donor fatigue
    public or offical weariness of extending aid to needy people
  89. Fertile Crescent
    arc shaped. stretches thorugh southern irag through northern, southern turkey, syria, lebanon, isreal, and western jordan.  plants and animals were domesticated 10,000 yrs ago
  90. Green Revolution
    high yeilding seeds, mechanization, irrigation, massive applications of chemical fertilizers to areas where traditional agriculture has been practiced. 
  91. hinterland
    lies way from the capital and largest cities. often rural or even unsettled. area with development potential. 
  92. monsoon
    air blowing seadily for several weeks or months. seasona reversal of wind directions. strong summer maximuim of rainfall. long dry season lasting most or all of winter
  93. maquiladora
    operations dedicated to manufactured goods. in mexico and central america. components produced in US. NAFTA 1994 massive expansion 
  94. Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
    1960, resist isreal and recognize in 1990s as the sol legitimate org. rep. official palesinian interests internationally 
  95. shifting cultivation
    cycle of land use b/w crops and fallow yrs that is neede to work around the infertility of trpical soils. 
  96. sedentarization
    voluntray settling down, by pastrol nomads in middle east
  97. salinization
    deposition of salts in soils that are overwatered 
  98. Special Economic Zone (SEZ)
    in china, attract investment and boost production through tax breaks and other incentives.

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