Awareness and thinking, as well as specific mental acts such as perceiving, attending to, interpreting, remembering, believing, judging, deciding, and anticipating.
Transformation of sensory input into mental representation and the manipulation of such representations.
-Thoughts about something that are personally relevant, connecting ideas or events to one's own life.
-Ex: seeing a picture of the president and remembering when he was at Kent State.
-Thoughts about objective facts related to a particular event.
-Seeing a picture of Romney and thinking he was the govenor of Massachusetts
-Process of imposing order on the information our sense organs take in.
-Process of making sense of, or explaining, events in the world.
-Ex: lawyers and a court case
Standards and goals people develop for evaluating themselves and others.
Beliefs and Desires
-Different standards for each
Who came up with field dependence and field independence?
Herman Witkin (1954)
People who are dependent on the visual field for their information.
People who are less dependent on their visual field and consider other information.
People attempt to understand, predict, and control events.
Human as Scientists
-Constructs- Idea that summarizes observations and conveys meaning.
- Constructs a person uses to interpret and predict events.
"A persons processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events"
If two people have similar construct systems, they will be psychologically similar.
To understand a person, we must understand how she/he construes the social world.
Intellectual position grounded in the notion that reality is constructed, that every person and certainly every culture has a version of reality that is unique , and that no single version of reality is any more privileged than other
Who studied social learning theory?
Persons interpretation of responsibility for the events in his or her life.
Locus of Control
Events are outside of ones influence
External Locus of Control
Events are within ones influence
Internal Locus of Influence
Particular "default" LOC for most situations
LOC fluctuates in different ares of life
Set of relevant actions intended to achieve a goal that a person has selected. Believed to be a good unit for measuring regular goal setting and acquisition.
Belief that one can execute a specific course of action to achieve a goal.
-Focus on educational attainment
-Knowledge you have
-Focus on ability to learn
-Ability to take in information and manipulate it
-Most popular intelligence tests focus on aptitude