Neur Wk3-brain.txt

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Neur Wk3-brain.txt
2012-11-04 21:25:01
Neur Wk3 brain

Neur Wk3-brain
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  1. Epilepsy
    a brain disorder involvign repeated spntaneous seizures (a form of convulstions) of any type
  2. Seizures
    • episodes of altered brain function affecting attention and/or behavior
    • caused by abnormal brain electrical activity
    • may be inherited (genetic predisposition)
    • environmental causes
  3. Types of Seizures
    • Absense (petit) mal epilepsy
    • Generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure
    • Status epilepitcus
  4. Absense (petit) mal epilepsy
    • brief, sudden lapse of conscious activity
    • mild in apperance
    • occurs more often in children/adolescents than adults
    • may appear that affected individual is merely staring into space fr a few seconds
    • disappears by late teeens to early twenties
  5. Generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure
    • Tonic-increased muscle tone or contraction
    • Clonic-alternating muscles contraction-relaxtion
  6. Status epilepitcus
    • Repeated sizures without a recovery period
    • premanent brain and heart damage may occur in absense of immediate treatment
  7. Symptoms of Grand Mal
    • Loss of conciousness
    • violent muscle contractions
    • aura
    • hypersalivation
    • loss of urinary bladder/bowel control
    • unresponsiveness
    • fatique
    • headache
  8. Who Classifies seizures into 4 categories
    • Parital seizures - begins locally and may involve larger area of brain tissue
    • Generalized seizures - bilaterally symmetrical without local onset
    • Unilareral seizures- only one side of the brain
    • Unclassifed seizures - seizures less defined in orgin and degree
  9. Diagnositic procedures for seizures
    • family history
    • blood test (elveated prolactin levels indicative of seizures)
    • EEG
    • Brain imageing (x-ray, CT, MRI PET)
  10. Treatmenst for Seizures
    • 6 classifications of medication
    • 1-hydanatonis
    • phenytoin
    • mephenytoin
    • 2-barbiturates
    • phenobarbital
    • primidone
    • 3-succinimides
    • ethosuximide
    • 4-Oxazolidones
    • trimethadione
    • 5-benzodiaziepines
    • diazepam
    • clonazepam
    • 6-anticonvulsants
    • carbamazepine
    • valproate
  11. Stroke or Cardiovascular accident CVA
    3rd leading cause of death in US
  12. Risk Factors for CVA
    • family history
    • traumatic head injury
    • tobacco use
    • hypertension
    • alcohol abuse
    • oral contraceptives
  13. Treatment to reduce risk CVA
    • anticoagullant medications
    • antiplatelet affregator medications
    • antihypertensice medications
  14. Anyeruysum
    • Abnormal bulge or balloning in blood vessel supplying the brain (cerebrum)
    • usually occurs a branching poitn of arteries of the circle of willis
    • blood collects in the cranial cavity causing increased intracranial pressure
    • neuronal damage
    • loss of consciousness
    • coma
    • death
  15. thrombosis and embolism
    Blood clot that blocks the cerebral artieries causeing infarction of brain tissue (ischemia or ischemia stroke-lack oxygen to affected tissue potentially cause death of brain tissue (necrosis) if untreaded)
  16. Two types of clots
    • Thrombosis - a clot that develops on wall of atherosclerotic cerebal artery blocking blood flow
    • Embolism
    • A clost that travels from another part of the body and suddenly occludes a cerebral blood artery
  17. Signs and symptoms of thrombosis and embolism
    • loss of conscious ness
    • paresis
    • paralysis
  18. treatment of thrombosis and embolism
    • 1-surgical intervention
    • endarterectomy
    • carotid artery bypass
    • 2-pharmacolofical therapy
  19. Transient ischemic attack TIA
    an episode where a person has stroke-like symptoms for less tha t24 hours usually less than 1-2 hours possible warning sign of future stroke
  20. Causes of TIA
    • blood clot
    • arterial vasospasm
  21. Consequence of TIA
    sudden brief decrease in brain function or neurologic deficit
  22. Diagnositic procedures for TIA
    • cerebral angiography
    • brain imaging
  23. Treatment for TIA
    • anticoagulant medications
    • antiplatelet affregator medications
    • combined antiplatelet affrefaror/vasodilator medications
    • combination of asprin and dipyridamole