Neur Wk3-pain.txt

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Author:
ambirc
ID:
181691
Filename:
Neur Wk3-pain.txt
Updated:
2012-11-04 21:26:40
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Neur Wk3 pain
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Neur Wk3-pain
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  1. Pain
    subjective - may be sharp or dull, intermittent or constand or throbing or steady
  2. acute pain
    begins suddenly and usually does not last long
  3. chronic pain
    last for weeks or months
  4. Threshold
    inital level of pain
  5. Tolerance
    point an individual may require treatment
  6. Physical pain
    results from tissue famage
  7. Psychogenic pain
    results from mental, emotional , or hehavioral factors
  8. Purpose and funciton of Pain
    • acts as a wraning indicating an abnormal state - alers hemoestasis
    • acts as an avoidance mechanism to prevent furthurer pain - hemostasis restored
  9. Categories of pian
    • cutaneous pain
    • somatic pain
    • viceral pain
    • neuropahtic pain
    • referred pain
  10. Nocicptor or pain receptor
    • maost abundany sensory receptor in skin
    • as many as 1300 nociceptors per square inch of skin
    • free neerver ending, not encapsulated
  11. Pain gate control therory
    • nerve fibors involved
    • a bata (AB) fiber
    • Delta fiber
    • c-fiber
  12. A beta fiber
    • large myelinated fiver
    • fast counction velocity
    • touch vibrations and hair deflection pain perception
  13. delta fiber
    • large, myuelinated fiver
    • fast conduction velocity
    • pain and temperature
    • closes gate and diminish pain perceptions
  14. c-fiber
    • small unmyelinated fiber
    • slowconduction velocity
    • aoin temperatuve and itch
    • opens gate and enchances pain perception
  15. thalamus
    funciton as a relay station and delegates pain activity
  16. modulation of pain -natural relief or analegisia
    • brain produces endogenerous opiods or morphine-like substances
    • endorphins - blocks pain signals in brain stem
    • enkephalins - blocks pain signals in spinal cord
  17. modulation of pain pharmacologial management of pain
    • salicylates -alleviates pain via PNS
    • NSAIDs - allevaite pain via th ePNS
    • narcotic agonists - alleviate pain via the CNS
    • alernatice pain therapies
  18. MU receptors
    analgesia via brain and spinal cord
  19. Kappa receptors
    analgesia via spinal cord
  20. delta receptors
    no analgesic effect
  21. sigma receptors
    analgesia via spinal cord
  22. Three classes of opioid receptors
    • opiod recptor agonist - drug that activates opioid receptors
    • Mixed opioid receptor agonist-antagonist - drug that activates some opiod receptor subtypes or blocks other opioid receptor subtypes
    • -less potent than full receptor agaonisht
    • lower dependency potential than full receptor agonist
    • withdrawal symptons less than full receptor agonist
    • Opioid receptor antagonists - drug that blocks opioid receptors - used to treat opioid induced and repspratory and CNS depression
  23. Uses of Pain??
    • analgesia/anesthesia
    • cough suppression
    • diarrhea
    • opioid dependance
  24. Toxicity - pain
    • overdose
    • Coma
    • respiratory depression
    • hypotensiton
  25. drug interactions for pain
    additive CNS depression - alcohol, sedative-hypnotics, tricyclicn antidepressants, histamine receptor antagonists

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