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What are the two componets to visual inspection?
What the first three steps in posture analysis?
- Have patient gowned and shoes removed
- instruct patient to walk in place eyes closed
- Have patient stand with eyes closed
What are you examining from posterior to anterior?
- head tilt and rotation
- shoulder heights
- hand position
- illiac crest heights
- internal or external foot rotation
What do you examine from the sagittal plane view?
- ear, shoulder, pelvis alignment
- forward head carriage
- spinal curverature
What are the cervical landmarks?
- C2 spinous process- 1st osseous prominence below occiput
- C7 spinous process- Large protuding, C6 glides away
How do you locate T1?
Utilize C7 location
How do you locate T4?
most prominent sp in upper thoracic region
How is T6/T7 located?
- C6 Found medial to inferior border of scapula when patinet prone.
- C7 found in same spot when seated
How is L1 located?
First large blade like SP
How is L4 found?
Medial to illiac crest
Where is S2 found?
level of PSIS
What is the definition for chiropractic?
The science, art, and philosophy that deals primarily with the relationship between the spine and nervous system in the restoration and maintence of health
What is the definition of a subluxation?
Malposition of a vertebra with the one below that has an adverse effect upon the exiting spinal nerves
What is the subluxation formula?
Fixation + Neural component = subluxation
What is the goal of the chiropractor?
To reduce/correct subluxation in order to promote optimal nerve function
What are the four palmer techniques?
- Toggle recoil, upper cervical specific
- Palmer gonstead
- Palmer Thompson
- Palmer Diversified
Who developed toggle recoil?
What is utilized in the Thompson method?
What is the purpose of the palmer techniques?
- Dr. Patient saftey
- Patient injury minimized
- help a variety of patients
- provide strong foundation for other techniques
What is the lowest cervical vertebra that demonstrates significant anterior glide during extension?
Who pioneered full spine radiographs?
What are the essential elements for Clinical care?
- techniques for examining diff parts of body
- Clinical reasoning
In what part of history taking is it important to quote the patient?
What does OPPQRST stand for?
- O = onset
- P = palliative (what makes better)
- P = provocation (makes worse)
- Q = Quality (pain scale)
- R = Radiating
- S = Site
- T = Timing
What range of motion is considered greater?
The chiropractic adjustment is when a thrust moves beyond
the elastic barrier and into which area?
Active range of motion is determined from the neutral
position to where?
Passive range of motion is determined from the neutral
position to what point?
What is the area called at the upper limits of passive range
What is the contact point for lumbar extension?
inferior aspect of the spinous process
What is the contact point of lumbar rotation and lateral bending?
lateral aspect of spinous process
what is the contact point for thoracic flexion?
tip of spinous process
Which direction is the dual probe moved along the spine in the cervical vertebrae?
inferior to superior
Which direction is the dual probe moved along the spine in the thoracic and lumbar region?
superior to inferior
What is a break analysis?
rapid deflection over the distance of one segmental field
What setting should be used for a full spine scan?
How what is the placement of the nervoscope's probes in the cervical region?
What is the inclinometer placement for cervical, thoracic, and lumbar extension and flexion?
- Cervical = Superior aspect of Occiput and T-1
- Thoracic = T1 and T12
- Lumbar = T12 and S1
What is the inclinometer placemtn for cervical, thooracic, and lumbar rotation?
- Cervical = forehead (patient supine)
- Thoracic = T1 and T12 (patinet standing bent at waist)
- Lumbar = not performed
What is the placement of inclinometer for lateral bending?
Same as extension flexion
What is the few degrees of motion in a joint without engaging soft tissue?
What is the area that contains active and passive ROM?
What zone starts after Active ROM in the upper limits of passive ROM, it has a spongy feel?
What is the area beyond the elastic barrier that may created an audible cavitation during an adjustment?
What is the name of the limit which if broken may cause sprain, strain, luxation?
How many times must the inclinometer be used and what is the maximum allowable differential between each measurement?
3 times with only a 5 to 10 percent differential
What is indicated if the short leg becomes even or longer upon knee flexion.
- Positive derifield
- Ilium involvment (usually PI)
what is indicated by a short leg that stays short upon knee flexion?
- Negative derifield
- Sacrum involvment (usually AI)
what is indicated if a short leg becomes even with right head rotation?
- Right cervical syndorme
- Myospasm left c-spine
When examining the right sacroiliacjoint using the Knee Raiser test, you notice that the PSIS does not rotateanterior-superior upon flexion of the contralateral leg. What is the most likely listing?
When performing Leg Fanning, what
is the relative motion of the PSIS during adduction of the thighs?
Derifield Leg Check analysis reveals apositive Derifield on the right. A positive sacroiliac fluid motion test is noted on the left. The PSIS does not move posterior inferior on the affected side.
What is the most likely listing?
Left AS Ilium
Occiput motion palpation reveals a decrease in posterior to anterior glide, decreased right extension with lateral bending and fixation on the right when head is turned to the left. What is your listing?
X-ray analysis demonstrates an AS atlas.Your motion palpation findings reveal a decreased left lateral bending and right
rotation. What is your listing?